IT Glossary - G - ITU Online

IT Glossary
Key Terms To Know In The IT Industry

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G Suite

Google's suite of cloud computing, productivity, and collaboration tools, software, and products, rebranded as Google Workspace. It includes Gmail, Docs, Drive, Calendar, Meet, and more.

You will find this term commonly used in Cloud Computing / General IT

G Suite (Now Google Workspace)

A collection of cloud computing, productivity, and collaboration tools, software, and products developed by Google. It includes Gmail, Docs, Drive, Calendar, Meet, and more.

You will find this term commonly used in Cloud Computing / General IT

G Suite for Education

A suite of free Google apps tailored specifically for schools, including Classroom, Meet, Gmail, and more, designed to empower teaching and learning.

You will find this term commonly used in Educational Technology

G Suite Marketplace

An online store for web applications that integrate with Google Workspace (formerly G Suite) and other Google services.

You will find this term commonly used in Cloud Computing / General IT

G-code

A language used to control CNC machines, instructing them on where and how to move to produce 3D objects or parts.

You will find this term commonly used in Manufacturing, Automation

Game AI

The application of artificial intelligence techniques to create responsive, adaptive, or intelligent behaviors primarily in non-player characters (NPCs) in games.

You will find this term commonly used in Artificial Intelligence, Game Development

Game Development

The process of creating video games, encompassing design, development, and release. It involves teams of developers focusing on different aspects like programming, design, art, sound, and testing.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development

Game Development Frameworks

Tools and libraries designed to help developers create games. Examples include Unity, Unreal Engine, and Godot.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development / Game Design

Game Engine

A software development environment designed for people to build video games. Developers can drag and drop characters, inventories, and other game elements to create interactive, playable games.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development

Game Physics Engine

Software used to simulate physical systems in video games, such as gravity, collision, and motion, to create more realistic environments.

You will find this term commonly used in Game Development

Game Theory

A theory in economics and computer science that studies strategic interactions among rational decision-makers. It has applications in various fields, including AI.

You will find this term commonly used in AI / General IT

Game Theory in Computing

The study of strategic decision making, applied in various computing contexts such as algorithm design, network analysis, and artificial intelligence to predict outcomes in interactions with defined sets of rules.

You will find this term commonly used in AI / Theoretical Computer Science

Gamification Techniques

The application of game-design elements and principles in non-game contexts to improve user engagement and problem-solving.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, UI/UX

Gamma Correction

The process of adjusting the luminance of an image or video to compensate for the nonlinear response of display systems.

You will find this term commonly used in Image Processing, Graphics

GAN (Generative Adversarial Network)

A class of machine learning frameworks designed by Ian Goodfellow and his colleagues in 2014. Two neural networks contest with each other in a game.

You will find this term commonly used in AI

Gantt Chart

A type of bar chart that illustrates a project schedule. It shows the start and finish dates of the various elements and summary elements of a project.

You will find this term commonly used in Project Management

Gantt Chart Software

Applications specifically designed to create and manage Gantt charts for project planning and tracking.

You will find this term commonly used in Project Management

Garbage Collection

In computer science, garbage collection is a form of automatic memory management. The garbage collector attempts to reclaim garbage, or memory occupied by objects that are no longer in use by the program.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development

Garbage Collection Algorithm

Algorithms designed to automatically reclaim memory occupied by objects that are no longer in use by a program, reducing memory leaks and optimizing performance.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Memory Management

Gateway

A network node that connects two networks using different protocols together. It enables communication between different environments.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Gateway Address

An IP address that a networked computer uses to send data outside its local network. Typically, this is the address of a router or firewall.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Gateway Configuration

The process of setting up network gateways, which connect two different networks, enabling data routing and communication between them.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Configuration

Gateway Load Balancing Protocol (GLBP)

A Cisco proprietary protocol that attempts to overcome the limitations of existing redundant router protocols by adding basic load balancing functionality.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Gateway Protocol

Protocols used by gateways to communicate with each other and to route packets of data across networks.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Gateway Routing Protocol (GRP)

A protocol used by routers to communicate with each other and determine the best path for data transfer between networks.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Gaussian Blur

A common image processing operation, used to reduce image noise and detail by applying a Gaussian function. It's widely used in graphics software.

You will find this term commonly used in AI / General IT

Gaussian Filter

A type of image filter that smooths images by reducing noise and detail using the Gaussian function.

You will find this term commonly used in Image Processing, Computer Vision

Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM)

A probabilistic model for representing normally distributed subpopulations within an overall population. GMMs are commonly used in data clustering algorithms.

You will find this term commonly used in AI / Data Analysis

Gaussian Noise

A statistical noise having a probability density function equal to that of the normal distribution, also known as Gaussian distribution. Commonly used in signal processing and communication theory.

You will find this term commonly used in AI / Data Analysis

GCP (Google Cloud Platform) IAM

Identity and Access Management for Google Cloud Platform, it provides administrators the ability to manage cloud resources centrally by controlling who can take what action on specific resources.

You will find this term commonly used in Cloud Computing / Security

GCP Cloud Functions

A serverless execution environment for building and connecting cloud services. With Cloud Functions, you can write simple, single-purpose functions that are attached to events emitted from your cloud infrastructure and services.

You will find this term commonly used in Cloud Computing

GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation)

A regulation in EU law on data protection and privacy in the European Union and the European Economic Area. It also addresses the transfer of personal data outside the EU and EEA areas.

You will find this term commonly used in Security / Cybersecurity

General Availability (GA)

The stage in a product’s lifecycle when it is available to all customers, has passed all beta and testing phases, and is considered stable and fully functional.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT / Software Development

General Inter-ORB Protocol (GIOP)

A protocol that allows communication between Object Request Brokers (ORBs), enabling interoperability in CORBA systems.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Distributed Systems

Generative Design

A design method that uses algorithms to generate design options based on constraints and requirements, often leveraging AI and machine learning to explore all possible permutations of a solution efficiently.

You will find this term commonly used in AI / Software Development

Generic Programming

A style of computer programming in which algorithms are written in terms of types to-be-specified-later that are then instantiated when needed for specific types provided as parameters.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Programming

Generic Top-Level Domain (gTLD)

One of the categories of top-level domains (TLDs) maintained by the IANA, used in the Domain Name System of the Internet, includes domains like .com, .net, .org, and newer generic domains like .app, .tech.

You will find this term commonly used in Web Development

Genetic Algorithm

A search heuristic that is inspired by Charles Darwin's theory of natural evolution. This algorithm reflects the process of natural selection where the fittest individuals are selected for reproduction in order to produce offspring of the next generation.

You will find this term commonly used in AI

Genetic Algorithm Optimization

A method inspired by natural evolution to solve optimization and search problems by iteratively selecting, combining, and mutating candidate solutions.

You will find this term commonly used in AI, Optimization

Genetic Programming

A type of Evolutionary Algorithm that aims at constructing programs, which are the best at performing a given computational task.

You will find this term commonly used in AI

Geo-Distributed Systems

Systems that are distributed over wide geographical areas, often to enhance redundancy, fault tolerance, and user proximity.

You will find this term commonly used in Distributed Systems, Networking

Geo-Hashing

A method of encoding geographic locations into a short string of letters and digits, useful in various location-based applications.

You will find this term commonly used in Data Encoding, Location Services

Geo-Replicated Database

A database that is replicated across multiple geographic locations to reduce latency and increase availability.

You will find this term commonly used in Database Management, High Availability

Geo-Replication

The process of replicating databases or files across different geographical locations for redundancy and quick access.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking / Database Management

Geocoding

The computational process of transforming a physical address description to a location on the Earth's surface (spatial representation in numerical coordinates).

You will find this term commonly used in Data Analysis / GIS

Geofencing

A feature in a software program that uses the global positioning system (GPS) or radio frequency identification (RFID) to define geographical boundaries.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking / Security

Geographic Routing

A routing method that uses geographic positions as parameters for routing decisions, often used in mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) and vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs).

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Geographical Information System (GIS)

A geographical information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, analyze, and present spatial or geographic data, enabling users to visualize, interpret, and understand patterns and relationships in geographical information.

You will find this term commonly used in Geospatial Analysis, Mapping, Environmental Science

Geolocation

The process or technique of identifying the geographical location of a person or device by means of digital information processed via the Internet.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking / Security

Geometric Modeling

The mathematical modeling of objects' shapes in 2D or 3D spaces, crucial in computer graphics, CAD, and simulation.

You will find this term commonly used in Computer Graphics, Design

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