IT Glossary - ITU Online

IT Glossary
Key Terms To Know In The IT Industry

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(ISC)2 (International Information System Security Certification Consortium)

Specializes in information security certifications, most notably the Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP).

You will find this term commonly used in Cybersecurity

(ISC)2 CCSP (Certified Cloud Security Professional)

Shows expertise in cloud security architecture, design, operations, and service orchestration.

You will find this term commonly used in Cloud Security

(ISC)2 CSSLP (Certified Secure Software Lifecycle Professional)

Focuses on the application of security practices in the software development lifecycle (SDLC).

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Security

(ISC)2 HCISPP (HealthCare Information Security and Privacy Practitioner)

Specializes in protecting health information, ensuring candidates understand the best practices in health information privacy and security.

You will find this term commonly used in Healthcare IT, Security

3D Printing

3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, is a process of creating three-dimensional objects by depositing layers of material based on a digital model or design, enabling rapid prototyping, customization, and production of physical objects.

You will find this term commonly used in Manufacturing, Prototyping, Product Development

5G

5G is the fifth generation of wireless technology for cellular networks, offering faster data speeds, lower latency, and greater capacity compared to previous generations, enabling new applications and services in areas such as IoT and AR/VR.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Wireless Communication, Telecommunications

Accelerometer

An accelerometer is a device that measures the acceleration forces acting on it, enabling the detection of device orientation, motion, and shocks, commonly used in smartphones, vehicles, and other electronic devices for various applications.

You will find this term commonly used in Hardware, Mobile Technology

Access Control

Access Control is a security technique that regulates who or what can view or use resources in a computing environment, encompassing authentication, authorization, and audit.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Cybersecurity

Access Control List (ACL)

An Access Control List (ACL) is a list of permissions attached to an object in a computer system, specifying which users or system processes can access the object and what operations they can perform.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Networking

Access Control Matrix

An Access Control Matrix is a security model that defines the rights of subjects (like users) to objects (like system resources) within a computing environment, specifying which operations are allowed for each subject-object pair.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Cybersecurity

Access Control Systems

Systems designed to control entry to or exit from hardware, software, or physical locations, managing who or what can view or use resources in a computing environment or a building.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, IT Infrastructure

Access Management

The process and technologies used to control and monitor access to information systems, networks, and physical locations, ensuring that only authorized individuals can access resources and data.

You will find this term commonly used in Cybersecurity, IT Infrastructure

Access Point (AP)

An Access Point is a networking hardware device that allows a Wi-Fi device to connect to a wired network, serving as a bridge between Wi-Fi devices and a wired network, often used to extend the coverage area of a network.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Access Point Name (APN)

The name of a gateway between a mobile network and another computer network, typically the public internet.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Mobile Communications

Acoustic Cryptanalysis

Acoustic Cryptanalysis involves analyzing sound waves emitted by electronic devices to extract sensitive data, exploiting hardware vulnerabilities to breach security without needing direct physical or network access.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Cybersecurity

Active Directory

Active Directory (AD) is a directory service developed by Microsoft for Windows domain networks, enabling centralized management of users, computers, and other resources within a network domain.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Security

Active Directory Federation Services (ADFS)

A Single Sign-On service that provides users with access to systems and applications located across organizational boundaries.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Security

Ad Hoc Network

An Ad Hoc Network is a temporary network connection established between devices directly without using a central router or server, typically used for specific purposes or tasks, such as file sharing or gaming among nearby devices.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Adaptive Bitrate Streaming

A technique used in streaming multimedia over computer networks that dynamically adjusts the quality of the video stream between the server and the client based on current network conditions to ensure uninterrupted playback.

You will find this term commonly used in Streaming Media, Network Performance

Adaptive Encryption

A form of encryption that can adjust its security parameters dynamically based on the context of the data or the security environment, enhancing data protection flexibility and efficiency.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Cryptography

Adaptive Learning Systems

Adaptive Learning Systems use AI and real-time data to tailor educational content to the individual's learning pace, preferences, and performance, making learning more personalized and efficient.

You will find this term commonly used in AI, Education

Adaptive Security

Adaptive Security is a security approach that continuously monitors and adjusts to the changing environment and threats, aiming to anticipate and mitigate potential attacks before they occur.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Cybersecurity

Adaptive Security Architecture

A security approach that evolves based on the behavior of users and potential threats, using real-time monitoring and automated responses to adapt to changing threat landscapes.

You will find this term commonly used in Cybersecurity, Network Security

Adaptive Security Posture

A security strategy that dynamically adapts to the changing threat landscape and the organization's IT environment, using continuous monitoring and real-time risk assessment to automatically adjust security measures and protections.

You will find this term commonly used in Cybersecurity, Risk Management

Adaptive Streaming

Adaptive Streaming is a technique used in streaming media over the internet that dynamically adjusts the quality of the video stream between the server and the client based on the available network speed, ensuring an optimal viewing experience.

You will find this term commonly used in Multimedia, Web Development

Adaptive User Interface

Adaptive User Interface (AUI) dynamically adjusts the UI and UX based on user behavior, preferences, and context, aiming to improve user satisfaction and efficiency by providing a personalized interaction experience.

You will find this term commonly used in UI/UX Design, Software Development

Adaptive Web Design

A design approach that aims to create web pages that automatically adjust and optimize themselves for the best viewing experience across different devices and screen sizes.

You will find this term commonly used in Web Development, UI/UX Design

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

ARP is a protocol used in the Internet Protocol (IP) networking to map an IP address to a physical machine address that is recognized in the local network, facilitating communication within a network segment.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Address Space

The range of memory addresses that a process or system can use to access memory or other system resources, crucial for the operation of computer systems and networks.

You will find this term commonly used in Computer Science, Operating Systems

Address Space Layout Randomization (ASLR)

ASLR is a security technique that randomly arranges the address space positions of key data areas of a process, including the base of the executable and the positions of the stack, heap, and libraries, to prevent memory corruption exploits.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Cybersecurity

Addressable TV Advertising

A method of delivering targeted advertising based on household or user profiles, allowing different ads to be shown to different segments watching the same program.

You will find this term commonly used in Digital Marketing, Multimedia

Adobe Certified Expert (ACE)

Validates expertise in Adobe's products. Adobe offers certifications for each of its products, focusing on the skills required to excel in digital media, design, and communication.

You will find this term commonly used in Graphic Design, Multimedia

Adobe Certified Instructor (ACI)

Demonstrates expertise in Adobe products and the ability to teach others how to use them.

You will find this term commonly used in Education, Multimedia

Adobe Photoshop

A raster graphics editor developed and published by Adobe Inc. for Windows and macOS.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT, Multimedia

Advanced Data Visualization

The use of sophisticated graphical techniques and tools to represent complex data sets visually, enhancing the ability to understand trends, patterns, and outliers, and to communicate findings effectively.

You will find this term commonly used in Data Analysis, Business Intelligence

Advanced Driver-Assistance Systems (ADAS)

Systems in modern vehicles that use technology to assist the driver, including features such as automatic braking, lane-keeping assistance, and adaptive cruise control, aimed at enhancing safety and driving efficiency.

You will find this term commonly used in Automotive Technology, Safety

Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)

A symmetric encryption algorithm widely used across the globe to secure data, adopted as a standard by the U.S. government.

You will find this term commonly used in Cryptography, Security

Advanced Persistent Threat (APT)

A prolonged and targeted cyberattack in which an unauthorized user gains access to a network and remains undetected for an extended period of time, often aiming to steal data or surveil activities.

You will find this term commonly used in Cybersecurity, Network Security

Advanced RISC Machine (ARM) Architecture

A family of RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing) architectures for computer processors, known for their low power consumption and efficiency, widely used in mobile devices, embedded systems, and increasingly in servers and desktops.

You will find this term commonly used in Computer Architecture, Hardware

Adversarial Machine Learning

A technique in machine learning which attempts to fool models through malicious input, aiming to improve the robustness of AI systems by exposing them to attacks during training.

You will find this term commonly used in AI, Cybersecurity

Affiliate Marketing

Affiliate Marketing in IT refers to the practice where a business rewards one or more affiliates for each visitor or customer brought by the affiliate's own marketing efforts, commonly used in e-commerce and online advertising.

You will find this term commonly used in Digital Marketing, E-commerce

Affinity Analysis

A data analysis technique used to uncover relationships between variables, often used in market basket analysis to understand product purchase patterns.

You will find this term commonly used in Data Analysis, Business Intelligence

Agile Business Analysis

The practice of business analysis within an agile development context, focusing on continuously collaborating with stakeholders to understand requirements, prioritize them, and deliver incrementally to maximize value.

You will find this term commonly used in Agile Methodology, Business Analysis

Agile Development Framework

A structured set of practices and principles designed to guide the agile software development process, such as Scrum or Kanban, focusing on iterative development, collaboration, and customer feedback.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Agile Methodology

Agile Development Practices

Agile Development Practices refer to the methodologies and principles used in software development that promote iterative development, collaboration, and adaptability to change, including Scrum, Kanban, and Extreme Programming (XP).

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development

Agile Estimating and Planning

The process of creating agile project plans that are iterative, flexible, and closely aligned with customer needs, often involving user stories and story points to estimate effort and complexity.

You will find this term commonly used in Agile Methodologies, Project Management

Agile Methodology

Agile Methodology is a project management approach primarily used in software development, emphasizing iterative progress, collaboration, and flexibility in response to changes.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT, Development

Agile Portfolio Planning

An approach to managing and prioritizing projects and initiatives across an organization's portfolio using agile principles, focusing on adaptability, stakeholder engagement, and delivering value in alignment with strategic goals.

You will find this term commonly used in Project Management, Agile Methodology

Agile Project Governance

The application of governance principles to agile projects, ensuring that they align with business goals and comply with organizational standards and regulations.

You will find this term commonly used in Agile Methodologies, Governance

Agile Project Management

Agile Project Management is an iterative approach to managing software development projects that focuses on continuous releases and incorporating customer feedback with every iteration.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT, Development

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