IT Glossary - P - ITU Online

IT Glossary
Key Terms To Know In The IT Industry

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Packet

A unit of data transmitted over a network.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Packet Filtering

The process of controlling network access by analyzing incoming and outgoing packets and allowing or blocking them based on a set of rules.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Security

Packet Loss

The percentage of data packets lost during transmission over a network.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Security

Packet Sniffer

A software tool or device used to capture and analyze data packets as they pass through a network interface, often used for troubleshooting and security analysis.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Security

Packet Sniffing

The practice of intercepting and analyzing data packets transmitted over a network.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Security

Packet Switching

A method of transmitting data in which messages are divided into packets and routed independently.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, General IT

PageRank

An algorithm used by Google Search to rank websites in their search engine results. It measures the importance of website pages based on the number and quality of links to them.

You will find this term commonly used in Search Engine Optimization

Pagination

The process of dividing a document or list of items into discrete pages, often used in web development to improve user navigation and reduce loading times for large datasets.

You will find this term commonly used in Web Development

Pair Programming

A software development technique where two programmers work together at one workstation. One writes code while the other reviews each line of code as it is typed in. The roles switch frequently.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development

Palindrome

A word, phrase, number, or other sequences of characters that reads the same forward and backward (ignoring spaces, punctuation, and capitalization). Used in computing for various logic and programming exercises.

You will find this term commonly used in Programming, Algorithms

Palo Alto Networks Certified Cybersecurity Associate (PCCSA)

Demonstrates knowledge of modern cybersecurity threats and cyber defense strategies, focusing on Palo Alto Networks’ Security Operating Platform.

You will find this term commonly used in Cybersecurity

Parallel Computing

Performing multiple calculations or processes simultaneously.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT, AI

Parallel Processing

Simultaneously executing multiple tasks or instructions to improve computational efficiency.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT, AI

Parameter

A special kind of variable in programming and mathematics that is used to pass information between functions or procedures.

You will find this term commonly used in Programming

Parity Bit

A bit that is added to a set of binary data to ensure that the total number of 1-bits in the set is either even or odd. It is used for error detection in data transmission.

You will find this term commonly used in Data Communication

Partition

The division of a physical or logical storage unit into separate, independent sections. In computing, disk partitioning is the process of dividing a disk into one or more regions for better data management.

You will find this term commonly used in Storage, Operating Systems

Passive Attack

A cyber attack method that involves monitoring and eavesdropping on network communications without actively altering or disrupting them.

You will find this term commonly used in Cybersecurity, Security

Passive Cooling

Cooling techniques that do not require energy consumption, such as natural ventilation or heat sinks.

You will find this term commonly used in Green Technology, Hardware

Passive FTP

A type of FTP connection where the client initiates both data connections.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Security

Passive Income

Income generated from investments, business ventures, or assets with minimal active effort.

You will find this term commonly used in Business, Finance

Passive Optical Network (PON)

A telecommunications network that uses fiber-optic cables to distribute signals to multiple subscribers without the need for active components such as repeaters or amplifiers.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Telecommunications

Password

A secret word or phrase used to authenticate a user's identity and gain access to a computer system or online account.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Cybersecurity

Password Manager

A software application designed to store and manage passwords securely.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Cybersecurity

Password Reset

The process of recovering access to an account by resetting the password.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Cybersecurity

Password Strength

The degree of complexity and randomness of a password, determining its resistance to hacking attempts.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Cybersecurity

Patch

A software update designed to fix or improve a program's functionality, security, or performance.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Cybersecurity

Patch Antenna

A type of radio antenna with a low profile, which can be mounted on a flat surface. It is widely used in telecommunications and computing for wireless networks.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Patch Cable

A short cable used to connect networking devices, typically with RJ45 connectors.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Hardware

Patch Management

The process of managing and applying patches to software or systems to improve security and functionality.

You will find this term commonly used in Cybersecurity, General IT

Patch Panel

A panel containing multiple network ports used to connect and manage the incoming and outgoing cables.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Patch Tuesday

The second Tuesday of each month when Microsoft releases security patches and updates for its software products.

You will find this term commonly used in Cybersecurity, General IT

Pathfinding

The computational problem of finding a good path or route from one point to another. It is widely used in AI for navigating maps or graphs, especially in video games and robotics.

You will find this term commonly used in AI, Robotics

Payload

The data transmitted within a packet, excluding header information.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Security

PCB (Printed Circuit Board)

A board used in electronics for mounting and electronically connecting electronic components. It features paths or tracks etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate.

You will find this term commonly used in Hardware, Electronics

PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect)

A computer bus for attaching peripheral devices to a computer motherboard, designed to allow many types of devices to be added to a computer, enhancing its capabilities.

You will find this term commonly used in Hardware

PDF (Portable Document Format)

A file format developed by Adobe in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT

Peer Review

The process of evaluating and providing feedback on work by one's peers or colleagues.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT, Software Development

Peer-to-Peer (P2P)

A decentralized network architecture where participants share resources directly without a central server.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Pen Input

Input method using a stylus or digital pen on touch-sensitive devices.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT, Mobile Devices

Penetration Rate

In cybersecurity, it refers to the percentage of successful attacks against a network or system. In marketing, it refers to the percentage of a market captured by a product.

You will find this term commonly used in Cybersecurity, Marketing

Penetration Testing

Penetration testing, also known as ethical hacking, is the practice of assessing computer systems, networks, and applications for security vulnerabilities by simulating real-world cyber attacks to identify potential weaknesses.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Cybersecurity

Perceptron

The simplest type of artificial neural network, essentially a linear classifier used for binary classification tasks.

You will find this term commonly used in AI, Machine Learning

Performance

The speed and efficiency with which a system, application, or device operates.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT, Software Development

Performance Counter

A tool or feature in computing that helps monitor the performance of various aspects of a system, such as CPU usage, memory usage, and network traffic.

You will find this term commonly used in System Monitoring

Performance Metrics

Quantifiable measures used to evaluate the performance of a system, application, or process.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT, Software Development

Performance Testing

Evaluating the responsiveness, speed, and stability of a system under various conditions.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT, Software Development

Performance Tuning

Optimizing system parameters and configurations to improve the performance of hardware or software.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT, Software Development

Peripheral

An external device connected to a computer, such as a keyboard, mouse, or printer.

You will find this term commonly used in Hardware, General IT

Perl

A high-level programming language known for its text processing capabilities.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT, Software Development

Permission

Authorization granted to a user, allowing access to specific resources or actions.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Cybersecurity

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