IT Glossary - O - ITU Online

IT Glossary
Key Terms To Know In The IT Industry

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OAuth

An open-standard authorization protocol used for secure API authentication.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Web Development, General IT

OAuth 2.0

An authorization framework that enables applications to obtain limited access to user accounts on an HTTP service, such as Facebook, GitHub, and Google.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Cybersecurity

OAuth 2.0 Flows

Different authorization processes within the OAuth 2.0 framework, designed for various application scenarios, including authorization code flow, implicit flow, and client credentials flow.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Web Development

OAuth2 Proxy

A reverse proxy and static file server that provides authentication using Providers (Google, GitHub, and others) to validate accounts by email, domain or group.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Web Development

Obfuscation

The deliberate act of creating source or machine code that is difficult for humans to understand, used to protect intellectual property or sensitive data within software.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Software Development

Object Code

The output of a compiler after it processes source code. Object code can be directly executed by a computer's hardware or can serve as input to a linker.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Programming

Object Detection

The process of locating and classifying objects within images or video streams.

You will find this term commonly used in Computer Vision, AI, General IT

Object Lifecycle Management

The process of managing the lifecycle of an object from its creation to its deletion, including phases such as creation, use, and disposal, often within the context of cloud storage.

You will find this term commonly used in Cloud Computing, Storage

Object Lifetime

The time during which an object exists in memory, from creation (instantiation) to destruction (garbage collection or deallocation).

You will find this term commonly used in Programming, Memory Management

Object Lifetime Management

The aspect of software development concerned with the creation, use, and cleanup of objects to manage memory and resources efficiently in programming languages, especially those with manual memory management.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Memory Management

Object Linking and Embedding (OLE)

A technology developed by Microsoft that allows embedding and linking to documents and other objects. For developers, it brought OLE Control Extension (OCX), a way to develop and use custom user interface elements.

You will find this term commonly used in Programming, Windows Development

Object Management Group (OMG)

An international, open membership, not-for-profit technology standards consortium that produces and maintains computer industry specifications for interoperable enterprise applications.

You will find this term commonly used in Standards, Enterprise IT

Object Model

A collection of objects or classes through which a program can examine and manipulate some specific parts of its world. In essence, it is a map of objects and their relationships and how they can be manipulated.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development

Object Pooling

A software design pattern that involves creating a pool of objects that can be reused instead of creating and destroying them on demand.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Performance Optimization

Object Query Language (OQL)

A query language standard for object-oriented databases, analogous to SQL for relational databases.

You will find this term commonly used in Database Management

Object Recognition

A computer vision technique for identifying objects in images or videos. While closely related to object detection, it goes further by not only detecting objects within an image but also identifying them.

You will find this term commonly used in AI, Computer Vision

Object Recognition Technology

Advanced computer vision technology used to identify and detect objects within images or videos, pivotal in fields like autonomous driving, security surveillance, and augmented reality applications.

You will find this term commonly used in AI, Computer Vision

Object Relational Mapping (ORM)

A programming technique for converting data between incompatible type systems in object-oriented programming languages and relational databases.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Database Management, General IT

Object Repository

A centralized storage location for objects used in software testing and development, facilitating reuse of objects across different projects or parts of a project.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Testing

Object Request Broker (ORB)

Middleware that allows programs to send objects and request services from programs located on other computers in a network.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Software Development

Object Serialization

The process of converting an object's state into a format that can be stored or transmitted and reconstructed later.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT, Programming

Object Storage

A method of storing data as objects, typically in a distributed system, where each object contains the data, metadata, and a unique identifier.

You will find this term commonly used in Data Storage, Cloud Computing, General IT

Object Storage Device (OSD)

A storage device designed to manage digital data as objects, unlike traditional file or block storage, allowing for scalable, efficient storage solutions.

You will find this term commonly used in Data Storage, Cloud Computing

Object-Based Storage (OBS)

A storage architecture that manages data as objects, as opposed to block storage or file storage, which manage data as blocks within sectors or as a hierarchical file system.

You will find this term commonly used in Data Storage

Object-Oriented Analysis (OOA)

The process of analyzing a task (also known as a problem domain), to develop a conceptual model that can then be used to complete the task. A part of object-oriented methodology.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Analysis

Object-Oriented Analysis and Design

Object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) is a structured approach to software development that focuses on modeling systems based on the concept of objects, with an emphasis on abstraction, encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development

Object-Oriented Database

A database that uses object-oriented programming for its design, creation, and management, allowing objects, classes, and inheritance to be used in database schemas.

You will find this term commonly used in Database Management

Object-Oriented Database Management System (OODBMS)

A database management system that supports the modelling and creation of data as objects, incorporating elements of object databases and relational databases.

You will find this term commonly used in Database Management

Object-Oriented Database System (OODBS)

A database management system (DBMS) that supports the modelling and creation of data as objects. This includes some kind of support for classes of objects and the inheritance of class properties and methods by subclasses and their objects.

You will find this term commonly used in Database Management

Object-Oriented Design (OOD)

The process of planning a system of interacting objects for the purpose of solving a software problem. It is one step beyond object-oriented analysis (OOA), focusing on the implementation of the conceptual model.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Design

Object-Oriented Development (OOD)

A methodology that follows the object-oriented paradigm for software development, focusing on the creation of systems modeled as collections of interacting objects.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Methodology

Object-Oriented Metrics

Measures used to assess various aspects of object-oriented programming practices, such as class complexity, inheritance depth, and method coupling.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Engineering, Metrics

Object-Oriented Modeling (OOM)

The process of creating a model of a system of interacting objects, used to visualize, specify, construct, and document the artifacts of an object-oriented system.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Modeling

Object-Oriented Programming

Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects," which can contain data and code to manipulate the data. It emphasizes reusability, modularity, and flexibility in software development.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development

Object-Oriented Programming (OOP)

A programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects," which can contain data and code to manipulate that data.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT

Object-Oriented Programming Languages

Languages that are based on the object-oriented programming paradigm, including Java, C++, Python, and Ruby, focusing on defining data as objects and the functions that operate on these objects.

You will find this term commonly used in Programming, Software Development

Object-Oriented Scripting Language

A programming language that uses classes and objects to create more modular, reusable code. Examples include Python, Ruby, and JavaScript.

You will find this term commonly used in Programming, Web Development

Object-Oriented Software Engineering (OOSE)

A software design technique that is used to design and implement software systems using the object-oriented paradigm and techniques.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Engineering, Design

Object-Relational Database (ORD)

A database management system (DBMS) that is based on the relational model and supports objects, classes, and inheritance in database schemas and query language.

You will find this term commonly used in Database Management

Object-Relational Mapping (ORM) Framework

A programming technique for converting data between incompatible type systems using object-oriented programming languages. This creates a "virtual object database" that can be used from within the programming language.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Data Management

Observability

The ability to infer the internal states of a system based on its outputs. In IT, it often refers to the ability to monitor and understand the state of systems and applications through logs, metrics, and traces.

You will find this term commonly used in Cloud Computing, DevOps

OCaml

A general-purpose programming language with an emphasis on expressiveness and safety, known for its powerful type system and for being the implementation language of the Coq proof assistant.

You will find this term commonly used in Programming, Software Development

OCR (Optical Character Recognition)

The technology that enables the recognition and conversion of text within images or scanned documents into machine-readable text.

You will find this term commonly used in AI, Data Processing, General IT

OCSP (Online Certificate Status Protocol)

A protocol for obtaining the revocation status of an X.509 digital certificate without requiring CRL (Certificate Revocation Lists).

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Networking

OData (Open Data Protocol)

An open protocol that allows the creation and consumption of queryable and interoperable RESTful APIs in a simple and standard way.

You will find this term commonly used in Web Development, APIs

ODBC (Open Database Connectivity)

A standard API for accessing database management systems (DBMS). The designers aimed to make it independent of database systems and operating systems.

You will find this term commonly used in Database Management

OEM Software

Software that is sold to computer builders and hardware manufacturers (OEMs) in large quantities, for the purpose of bundling with computer hardware.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Hardware

Off-Canvas Menu

A navigation menu that is hidden off the screen edges and can be brought into view with a user interaction, commonly used in mobile web design to maximize screen space.

You will find this term commonly used in Web Development, UI/UX Design

Off-Canvas Navigation

A design pattern for web applications and sites to provide navigation links off the screen edges that slide in on demand, optimizing the use of screen real estate especially on mobile devices.

You will find this term commonly used in UI/UX Design, Web Development

Off-Grid Computing

Computing activities performed without a direct connection to the central power grid or the main data network, often relying on local power generation or storage solutions.

You will find this term commonly used in Green IT, Distributed Computing

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