IT Glossary - B - ITU Online

IT Glossary
Key Terms To Know In The IT Industry

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Backbone

In networking, a backbone refers to the principal data routes between large, strategically interconnected networks and core routers. It's the central conduit designed to transfer data at high speeds and capacities, ensuring connectivity across various segments of the internet or within large organizations.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Backbone Network

The part of a computer network that interconnects various pieces of the network, providing a path for the exchange of information between different LANs or sub-networks. A backbone can tie together diverse networks in the same building, across different buildings, or over a wide area.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Infrastructure

Backbone Network Architecture

The high-capacity network infrastructure that connects various segments of a network, providing a path for the exchange of information between different sub-networks. It is the foundation for internet and intranet communications.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Infrastructure

Backhaul Network

The intermediate links between the core network, or backbone network, and the small subnetworks at the edge of the entire network. Essential in telecommunications for connecting cell sites to the network backbone.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Telecommunications

Backscatter Analysis

The study of reflections or responses from a communication system that can be used to monitor the health, traffic, and anomalies of a network or to detect and analyze cyber-attacks.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Cybersecurity

Backup

The process of creating copies of data to ensure its availability for restoration in case of data loss, corruption, or disasters. Backup strategies are critical for data recovery plans, safeguarding against data breaches, system failures, and other unforeseen events.

You will find this term commonly used in Data Management, Security

Backup and Recovery Strategy

Plans and technologies used by organizations to protect data from loss and to restore data following a loss event. This includes data backup solutions and disaster recovery procedures.

You will find this term commonly used in Data Management, IT Infrastructure

Backup Software

Software designed to create copies of data stored on devices or within systems to enable recovery in the event of data loss. Backup software ensures data integrity and availability, often featuring automation, scheduling, and data compression capabilities.

You will find this term commonly used in Data Management, Security

Balanced Computing

A design philosophy in computing that aims for an optimal balance between the major components of a computer system, such as CPU, memory, and I/O, to achieve maximum efficiency and performance.

You will find this term commonly used in Hardware, Computer Engineering

Balanced Scorecard (BSC) in IT

A strategic planning and management system used to align business activities with the vision and strategy of the IT department, improve internal and external communications, and monitor performance against strategic goals.

You will find this term commonly used in IT Management, Strategic Planning

Balanced Technology Extended (BTX)

A form factor for motherboards and computer cases, designed for improved thermal management compared to the older ATX standard.

You will find this term commonly used in Hardware, Computer Engineering

Band Steering

A technique used in dual-band wireless networks to encourage dual-band capable devices to use the less congested 5 GHz band, improving network efficiency and performance.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Wireless Communication

Bandwidth

Bandwidth is a measure of the maximum rate at which data can be transferred over a network or internet connection within a given time frame. It influences how quickly information can be sent or received, impacting everything from streaming quality to download speeds.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, General IT

Bandwidth Allocation

The process of distributing network bandwidth among various applications, services, or users to ensure optimal performance and fair usage. Bandwidth allocation techniques include Quality of Service (QoS) settings and bandwidth throttling.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, General IT

Bandwidth Allocation Control Protocol (BACP)

A protocol used in networking to manage the allocation of bandwidth on a wide area network (WAN) link, ensuring efficient use of bandwidth and fair access to network resources.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Protocol Design

Bandwidth Allocation Protocol

A method or protocol used in network management to distribute available bandwidth among different applications or users, ensuring efficient use of resources and maintaining quality of service (QoS) for critical applications.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, General IT

Bandwidth Cap

A limit imposed by Internet service providers on the amount of data that a user can transmit over a network in a given time period. Bandwidth caps are often part of network management strategies to ensure fair use of resources among all users.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, General IT

Bandwidth Compression

Techniques used to reduce the amount of data transmitted across a network by eliminating redundancies in the data, thus improving transmission speed. Also known as data compression.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Data

Bandwidth Management

The process of measuring and controlling the communications (traffic, packets) on a network link, to avoid filling the link to capacity or overfilling the link, which would result in network congestion and poor performance.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, General IT

Bandwidth Reservation System

A system designed to allocate bandwidth resources specifically to certain applications, services, or users to guarantee a minimum level of performance and improve the overall quality of service on a network.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Quality of Service

Bandwidth Shaping

The process of managing the bandwidth allocation to various applications or users to ensure optimal performance for critical services. It involves prioritizing network traffic to control the amount of bandwidth each service consumes.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Data Management

Bandwidth Throttling

The intentional slowing or speeding of an internet service by an internet service provider (ISP). It is a reactive measure employed in communication networks to regulate network traffic and minimize bandwidth congestion.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, General IT

Bare Metal

Refers to a computer system or network without any operating system installed. Bare metal environments are often used for the deployment of dedicated resources, such as servers or storage systems, allowing for direct control over hardware.

You will find this term commonly used in Hardware, Cloud Computing

Bare Metal Recovery

The process of restoring a computer system from scratch after a catastrophic failure, including the reinstallation of the operating system, applications, and data, directly to bare metal hardware or a different hardware without needing a previously installed operating system.

You will find this term commonly used in IT Infrastructure, Security

Bare-Metal Hypervisor

A type of virtual machine monitor (VMM) that runs directly on a host's hardware to control the hardware and to manage guest operating systems. Its main purpose is to provide a high-performance and efficient platform for virtualization.

You will find this term commonly used in Virtualization, Cloud Computing

Base Transceiver Station (BTS)

A piece of equipment that facilitates wireless communication between user equipment (UE), like mobile phones, and a network. UEs are connected to the network across the air interface through BTSs.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Wireless Communication

Baseband Transmission

The transmission of a signal without modulation to a higher frequency, meaning the transmission of raw data as it is, over a dedicated channel. It is commonly used in LAN technologies for short-distance communication.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Data Communication

Bash (Bourne Again Shell)

A Unix shell and command language written as a free software replacement for the Bourne shell. Bash has become a de facto standard for shell scripting on most flavors of UNIX, offering powerful programming features to automate tasks and enable system management.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Systems Administration

Batch Processing

A computing process where a group of transactions is collected over a period and processed as a single operation. This method is efficient for large, repetitive data jobs where immediate processing is not critical, commonly used in banking, payroll, and data mining operations.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT, Data Processing

Bayesian Filtering

A technique used for email filtering, spam detection, and other applications involving classification. It makes use of probabilities to predict the category of a piece of information.

You will find this term commonly used in Data Analysis, Cybersecurity

Bayesian Network

A statistical model that represents a set of variables and their conditional dependencies via a directed acyclic graph (DAG). Bayesian networks are used for a variety of purposes, including machine learning, data mining, and prediction.

You will find this term commonly used in AI, Data Analysis

BCP (Business Continuity Planning)

A strategic process that organizations implement to ensure critical business functions can continue during and after a disaster. BCP involves identifying potential threats, determining their impact, and developing policies and procedures to mitigate risks.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT, Security

Beacon

Small wireless devices that transmit signals to nearby portable electronic devices, primarily using Bluetooth technology. Beacons are used in location-based services, such as indoor navigation in malls and airports, to push notifications or advertisements directly to smartphones.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, IoT

Beacon Frame

A packet sent by a wireless access point (AP) to signal its presence to wireless devices. It contains information about the network, such as its SSID and security settings, helping devices find and connect to the network.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Wireless Communication

Beacon Protocol

A network protocol designed for applications that need to broadcast small, critical pieces of information to nearby devices without requiring a paired connection. Beacon protocols are widely used in IoT applications for proximity detection and contextual awareness.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, IoT

Behavior Specification Language

In software engineering, a language used to define or specify the behaviors of a system in a formal manner. These specifications are crucial for the development, testing, and maintenance of complex systems.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, System Design

Behavior-Driven Development (BDD)

A software development approach that encourages collaboration among developers, QA, and non-technical or business participants in a software project. It focuses on obtaining a clear understanding of desired software behavior through discussion with stakeholders.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Agile Methodologies

Behavioral Analysis

A method used in cybersecurity to detect malicious activity by analyzing patterns of behavior rather than relying solely on known signatures. Behavioral analysis can identify anomalies that indicate potential security threats, offering proactive protection against new and evolving attacks.

You will find this term commonly used in Cybersecurity, Data Analysis

Behavioral Analytics

The use of data about people's behavior to understand intent and predict future actions. It's widely used in marketing, cybersecurity, and user experience design.

You will find this term commonly used in Data Analysis, Cybersecurity

Behavioral Biometrics

A field of study that deals with the measurement of patterns in human activities. In cybersecurity, it's used as a form of authentication by analyzing the unique ways in which individuals interact with computer systems and devices.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Cybersecurity

Behavioral Elicitation Technique

In software engineering and user experience design, techniques used to understand user behavior, preferences, and requirements through observation, interviews, and other methods to inform system design.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, UX/UI Design

Benchmark Optimization

The process of improving software or system performance based on the results of benchmark tests, which assess the speed, efficiency, and capability of a system under a series of standardized tasks.

You will find this term commonly used in Performance Optimization, Software Development

Benchmark Testing

The process of running a set of standardized tests on a computer, server, or network to evaluate performance and compare it against reference standards or previous tests.

You will find this term commonly used in Performance Optimization, Testing

Bi-directional Data Sync

The process of synchronizing data in both directions between two or more systems or devices, ensuring consistency and accuracy across different storage locations or platforms.

You will find this term commonly used in Data Management, Software Development

Bi-directional Replication

The process of synchronizing data between two databases in real-time, allowing each database to receive and send updates. This ensures data consistency and availability in distributed database systems.

You will find this term commonly used in Databases, Data Management

Bi-directional Synchronization

The process of keeping data in two or more locations updated through the continuous reciprocal exchange of data. This ensures consistency and accuracy across systems or devices, often used in cloud computing, data backup, and collaborative applications.

You will find this term commonly used in Data Management, Cloud Computing

Bidirectional Charging

Refers to the capability of electric vehicles (EV) and devices to not only draw energy from the grid but also to feed electricity back into the grid. This concept is increasingly relevant in discussions about smart grids and sustainable energy management.

You will find this term commonly used in Emerging Technologies, Sustainability

Big Data

Refers to extremely large datasets that may be analyzed computationally to reveal patterns, trends, and associations, especially relating to human behavior and interactions. Big Data is characterized by its volume, velocity, and variety.

You will find this term commonly used in Data Analysis, General IT

Big Data Visualization

The representation of complex data sets in graphical or visual formats to help users understand, interpret, and derive insights from vast amounts of data. Utilizes tools and technologies designed for big data analytics.

You will find this term commonly used in Data Analysis, Big Data

Binary

A fundamental concept in computing and digital electronics, binary refers to a base-2 numeral system or binary number system, using only two symbols: 0 and 1. It's the core language of computers, representing data and facilitating operations at the most basic level.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT, Software Development

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