IT Glossary - U - ITU Online

IT Glossary
Key Terms To Know In The IT Industry

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U2F (Universal 2nd Factor)

An open authentication standard that strengthens and simplifies two-factor authentication using specialized USB or NFC devices.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Cybersecurity

U2F Protocol

A standard that enables the use of physical security tokens for two-factor authentication, designed to enhance the security of online services.

You will find this term commonly used in Cybersecurity

U2R (User to Root)

An attack type where an attacker starts out with access to a normal user account on the system and is able to exploit vulnerability to gain root access to the system.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Cybersecurity

UAC (User Account Control)

A technology and security infrastructure introduced with Microsoft's Windows Vista. It aims to improve the security of Microsoft Windows by limiting application software to standard user privileges.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Cybersecurity

UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver-Transmitter)

A computer hardware device for asynchronous serial communication in which the data format and transmission speeds are configurable.

You will find this term commonly used in Hardware, Networking

UAT (User Acceptance Testing)

The last phase of the software testing process, during which actual software users test the software to make sure it can handle required tasks in real-world scenarios.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Quality Assurance

Ubiquitous Computing

Ubiquitous Computing refers to the concept of integrating computing capabilities into everyday objects and environments, making them smart and interconnected to enhance user experiences and automate tasks.

You will find this term commonly used in Internet of Things (IoT), General IT, Emerging Technologies

Ubiquitous Language

A term used in Domain-Driven Design (DDD) for a body of language used by all team members to connect all the activities of the team with the software.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Design

Ubuntu

A popular distribution of the Linux operating system, known for its ease of use and community support.

You will find this term commonly used in Operating Systems

UDD (User-Driven Development)

A development methodology that focuses on involving the user in the development process to create more user-friendly software.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development

UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration)

A platform-independent, XML-based registry for businesses to list themselves on the Internet and a mechanism to register and locate web service applications.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Software Development

UDP (User Datagram Protocol)

A communications protocol used across the Internet for especially time-sensitive transmissions such as video playback or DNS lookups.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

UDP Flood

A type of Denial of Service (DoS) attack in which the attacker sends a large number of UDP packets to a random port on a remote host.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Cybersecurity

UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface)

A specification for a software program that connects a computer's firmware to its operating system (OS). It is designed to replace BIOS.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT, Hardware

UI (User Interface)

The means by which the user and a computer system interact, particularly the use of input devices and software.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT, Software Development

UI/UX Designer

Focuses on designing user interfaces and experiences, ensuring software is accessible, user-friendly, and aesthetically pleasing.

You will find this term commonly used in UI/UX Design, Web Development

UL (Upload)

The process of sending data from a local system to a remote system, such as a server or another client, with the intent that the remote system should save a copy of whatever is being transferred.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, General IT

UMA (Unified Memory Architecture)

A shared memory architecture used by integrated graphics processors (IGPs) and some SOCs where the GPU shares system memory.

You will find this term commonly used in Hardware, Graphics Processing

UML (Unified Modeling Language)

UML is a standardized modeling language used in software engineering for visualizing, specifying, constructing, and documenting software systems and processes. It provides a set of diagrams to represent different aspects of a system.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, System Analysis and Design

Unallocated Space

Disk space on a hard drive that is not formatted or assigned to a partition. This space can be used to create new partitions.

You will find this term commonly used in Hardware, Data Management

Unboxing

The process of converting an object from its boxed (object) form into its value (primitive) form in languages that use boxing and unboxing.

You will find this term commonly used in Programming

Underclocking

The process of lowering the clock rate of a computer's CPU or GPU, reducing power consumption and heat generation.

You will find this term commonly used in Hardware, Performance Optimization

Underflow

In computing, an error condition that occurs when a mathematical operation results in a smaller number than a computer can actually represent.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development

Undervolting

The process of reducing the voltage supplied to a component, primarily a CPU or GPU, to decrease heat output and power consumption without compromising performance significantly.

You will find this term commonly used in Hardware, Performance Optimization

Unicast

The sending of messages to a single network destination identified by a unique address. This is the most common form of message delivery on networks.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Unicode

Unicode is a character encoding standard that assigns a unique numeric value to every character and symbol in all the world's writing systems. It enables consistent representation of text across different platforms and languages.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT, Software Development, Internationalization

Unicode Transformation Format (UTF)

A family of character encoding formats for representing text, allowing for the encoding of all possible characters (code points) in Unicode.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Web Development

Unified Communication and Collaboration (UCC)

An industry term for a set of technologies that provides an integrated approach to communication and collaboration, through the merging of telephone, video, messaging, and other interactive systems.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Business IT

Unified Communications

Unified communications (UC) refers to the integration of various communication tools and channels, such as voice, video, messaging, and collaboration applications, into a single platform or interface for seamless communication and collaboration.

You will find this term commonly used in Communication, Collaboration, Networking

Unified Communications (UC)

The integration of communication tools that help people exchange ideas and do their jobs more effectively. It can include systems like instant messaging, voice, video conferencing, and data sharing.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Business IT

Unified Communications as a Service (UCaaS)

UCaaS is a cloud-based service model that delivers Unified Communications (UC) capabilities, such as voice calling, video conferencing, messaging, and collaboration tools, over the internet on a subscription basis. It offers flexibility, scalability, and cost savings compared to traditional on-premises UC systems.

You will find this term commonly used in Cloud Computing, Collaboration Tools, Networking

Unified Data Analytics Platform

A Unified Data Analytics Platform is a comprehensive solution that integrates various tools and technologies for collecting, storing, processing, analyzing, and visualizing data from different sources and formats. It provides a unified environment for data-driven insights and decision-making.

You will find this term commonly used in Big Data, Data Analytics, Business Intelligence

Unified Endpoint Management (UEM)

Unified Endpoint Management (UEM) is a comprehensive approach to managing and securing all endpoint devices, such as smartphones, tablets, laptops, and IoT devices, from a single centralized platform. It provides centralized control and visibility over devices, applications, and data.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Device Management, General IT

Unified Endpoint Security

Unified Endpoint Security is an integrated approach to endpoint protection that combines various security technologies, such as antivirus, endpoint detection and response (EDR), and endpoint management, into a single unified platform for comprehensive threat prevention, detection, and remediation.

You will find this term commonly used in Cybersecurity, Security, Endpoint Protection

Unified Modeling Language (UML) Diagram

A standardized visual language for specifying, visualizing, constructing, and documenting the artifacts of software systems, as well as for business modeling and other non-software systems.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Design

Unified Modeling Language (UML) Diagrams

Standardized diagrams for specifying, visualizing, constructing, and documenting the artifacts of software systems, as well as for business modeling and other non-software systems.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Engineering

Unified Network Management (UNM)

Unified Network Management (UNM) is an approach to managing and monitoring network infrastructure, devices, and services from a centralized platform or console. It provides comprehensive visibility, control, and automation of network operations to optimize performance and security.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Network Management, General IT

Unified Threat Intelligence

Unified Threat Intelligence refers to the aggregation, analysis, and sharing of threat intelligence data from various sources to provide organizations with a unified view of potential security threats and vulnerabilities. It helps organizations improve threat detection, response, and mitigation efforts.

You will find this term commonly used in Cybersecurity, Threat Intelligence, Security

Unified Threat Management (UTM)

Unified Threat Management (UTM) is a comprehensive security solution that combines multiple security features, such as firewall, intrusion detection, antivirus, and content filtering, into a single integrated platform for simplified management and protection against various threats.

You will find this term commonly used in Cybersecurity, Security, Networking

Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)

A string of characters that unambiguously identifies a particular resource.

You will find this term commonly used in Web Development

Unikernel

A specialized, single-address-space machine image constructed by using library operating systems.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Cloud Computing

Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)

An Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) is a device that provides emergency power to connected equipment during power outages or fluctuations in electrical supply. It ensures continuity of operation and protects against data loss and hardware damage.

You will find this term commonly used in Hardware, System Administration, General IT

Unit Testing

A software testing method by which individual units of source code, sets of one or more computer program modules together with associated control data, usage procedures, and operating procedures, are tested to determine whether they are fit for use.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Quality Assurance

Universal App

A Universal App, also known as a Cross-Platform App, is a software application that is developed to run on multiple platforms, such as desktops, mobile devices, and web browsers, without the need for separate versions or modifications. It offers consistent functionality and user experience across different devices and operating systems.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Mobile Development, General IT

Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (UART)

A piece of computer hardware that translates data between parallel and serial forms. UARTs are used in conjunction with communication standards such as RS-232.

You will find this term commonly used in Hardware, Networking

Universal Plug and Play (UPnP)

A set of networking protocols that permits networked devices, such as personal computers, printers, Internet gateways, Wi-Fi access points, and mobile devices to seamlessly discover each other's presence on the network and establish functional network services.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Security

Universal Serial Bus (USB) Standards

Specifications that define the limits and capabilities of USB technology, including data transfer rates and power supply.

You will find this term commonly used in Hardware, General IT

Universal Serial Bus 3.0 (USB 3.0)

USB 3.0 is an updated version of the USB standard that offers faster data transfer speeds, improved power management, and backward compatibility with older USB devices. It features a new SuperSpeed transfer mode with higher bandwidth for faster performance.

You will find this term commonly used in Hardware, General IT, Peripheral Devices

Unix

A family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix.

You will find this term commonly used in Operating Systems

Unstructured Data

Unstructured Data refers to data that does not have a predefined data model or organization, making it difficult to analyze and process using traditional database techniques. Examples include text documents, images, videos, and social media posts.

You will find this term commonly used in Big Data, Data Analytics, General IT

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