IT Glossary - R - ITU Online

IT Glossary
Key Terms To Know In The IT Industry

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R-value

In programming, it refers to a data value that is not assignable to a variable. It typically represents the right hand side of an assignment operation.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Programming Concepts

RADIUS Server

A network server that implements RADIUS protocol to authenticate, authorize, and account for user access and data usage.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Security

RAID

RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) is a data storage technology that combines multiple disk drives into a single logical unit to improve performance, redundancy, and fault tolerance of data storage systems.

You will find this term commonly used in Data Storage, Hardware, Data Protection

RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks)

A data storage technology that combines multiple physical disk drives into a single logical unit for performance, redundancy, or both.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT

RAID Controller

A device or software that manages RAID configurations, handling the process of distributing data across multiple disks for redundancy and performance.

You will find this term commonly used in Hardware, Storage

RAID Level

Different configurations of RAID, including RAID 0, RAID 1, RAID 5, RAID 10, etc., each offering different balances of performance, redundancy, and capacity.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT, Storage

RAID Partition

A partition of a hard drive that is used within a RAID configuration to increase performance or provide fault tolerance.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT, Storage

RAID Reconstruction

The process of recreating data across RAID array disks to restore data from damaged or failed disks.

You will find this term commonly used in Storage, Data Recovery

RAM (Random Access Memory)

Computer memory that allows data to be accessed quickly by the CPU, typically volatile and used for temporary storage.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT, Hardware

RAM Disk

A virtual disk that uses a portion of RAM as storage, faster than hard disks but volatile.

You will find this term commonly used in Hardware, Performance

Ransomware

Malware that encrypts a victim's files and demands payment (usually in cryptocurrency) for their release.

You will find this term commonly used in Cybersecurity

Ransomware Protection

Strategies and technologies designed to prevent ransomware attacks, including software solutions and best practices for data protection.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Cybersecurity

Ransomware-as-a-Service (RaaS)

A model of cybercrime where ransomware creators sell or lease out their ransomware to other criminals, who then carry out attacks.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Cybersecurity

Rapid Application Development (RAD)

A software development methodology that emphasizes quick prototype releases and iterations.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Methodologies

Rate Encoding

A method in digital communication that adjusts the rate at which data is sent over a communication channel.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Data Communication

Rate Limiting

The practice of controlling the rate of requests sent or received by a network interface controller to prevent overload.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Security

Rate Limiting API

A technique used to control the amount of incoming or outgoing API requests to or from a system within a given timeframe.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, API Management

Rate-Limiting

The process of controlling the amount of incoming or outgoing traffic to or from a network or an application, often used to prevent spam or to manage the load on a network.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Security

Raw Data

Data collected from a source, which has not yet been processed or analyzed.

You will find this term commonly used in Data Analysis, Data Processing

RDBMS (Relational Database Management System)

A database management system based on the relational model introduced by E.F. Codd. Examples include Oracle, MySQL, Microsoft SQL Server, and PostgreSQL.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT, Database

React (also React.js or ReactJS)

A JavaScript library for building user interfaces, primarily for web applications.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Web Development

React Hooks

Functions that let developers "hook into" React state and lifecycle features from function components.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Web Development

React Native

An open-source mobile application framework created by Facebook to develop applications for Android, iOS, Web, and UWP by enabling developers to use React along with native platform capabilities.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Mobile Development

Reactive Extensions (Rx)

A library for composing asynchronous and event-based programs using observable sequences and LINQ-style query operators.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Programming

Reactive Programming

A declarative programming paradigm concerned with data streams and the propagation of change.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development

Reactive Systems

Systems that are responsive, resilient, elastic, and message-driven, designed to cope with failure and high load.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, System Architecture

Read Committed

A level of SQL transaction isolation that guarantees that any data read is committed at the moment it is read.

You will find this term commonly used in Database, SQL

Read-Eval-Print Loop (REPL)

An interactive programming environment that takes single user inputs (expressions), evaluates them, and returns the result to the user.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Tools

Read-Only Memory (ROM)

A type of non-volatile storage medium that is used in computers and other electronic devices. Data stored in ROM cannot be electronically modified after the manufacture of the memory device.

You will find this term commonly used in Hardware, General IT

Read-Through Cache

A caching pattern where reads from the cache that result in a cache miss will automatically pull the missing data from the source, cache it, and return it.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Performance Optimization

Real User Monitoring (RUM)

A type of performance analysis that captures and analyzes each transaction by users of a website or application.

You will find this term commonly used in Web Development, Performance Analysis

Real-time Analytics

Real-time analytics involves the analysis of data as it is generated or received, enabling immediate insights and decision-making based on the most current information available.

You will find this term commonly used in Data Analytics, Real-time Processing

Real-Time Clock (RTC)

An electronic device (often an integrated circuit) that measures the passage of time. It is used in various devices for maintaining accurate time.

You will find this term commonly used in Hardware, Embedded Systems

Real-time Collaboration

Real-time collaboration involves multiple users working together on a project or task simultaneously, sharing and editing documents, data, or information in real-time, regardless of their geographical locations.

You will find this term commonly used in Collaboration, Communication, Remote Work

Real-Time Communication

Systems that provide real-time information transfer between devices.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Communication

Real-time Data Processing

The processing of data immediately after it is captured or recognized, allowing decisions to be made promptly based on the latest information.

You will find this term commonly used in Data Analysis, Information Processing

Real-Time Operating System (RTOS)

An operating system intended to serve real-time applications that process data as it comes in, typically without buffer delays.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Embedded Systems

Real-Time Processing

The processing of data immediately after capture, often necessary in time-sensitive operations such as navigation or live data broadcasting.

You will find this term commonly used in Data Analysis, General IT

ReCAPTCHA

A system designed to establish that a computer user is human (not a bot) by requiring the user to complete a test that a computer is unable to solve.

You will find this term commonly used in Web Development, Security

ReCAPTCHA v3

The latest version of reCAPTCHA by Google, aiming to improve user experience by eliminating the need for challenges.

You will find this term commonly used in Web Development, Security

Reconciliation

The process of ensuring that two sets of records (usually the balances of two accounts) are in agreement. In IT, it's often used in data processing and database management to ensure consistency.

You will find this term commonly used in Database, Data Management

Record Locking

A technique used in database management systems to control access to a database record in a multi-user environment.

You will find this term commonly used in Database, Concurrency Control

Record Management

The practice of identifying, classifying, archiving, preserving, and destroying records.

You will find this term commonly used in Data Management, Compliance

Recovery Model

In SQL Server, a database property that controls transaction log maintenance on a database. Recovery models are primarily designed to control log maintenance.

You will find this term commonly used in Database, Security

Recovery Point Objective (RPO)

The maximum targeted period in which data might be lost from an IT service due to a major incident.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Business Continuity

Recovery Site

A site that a company uses to recover and restore its technology infrastructure and operations when its primary site becomes unavailable due to disaster or other disruptive events.

You will find this term commonly used in Business Continuity, Disaster Recovery

Recovery Time Objective (RTO)

The targeted duration of time and a service level within which a business process must be restored after a disaster or disruption.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Business Continuity

Recursion

In computer science, a method where the solution to a problem depends on solutions to smaller instances of the same problem.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Algorithms

Recursive DNS Query

A type of DNS query in which the DNS server will fully resolve the request, handling all the necessary queries to track down the DNS record.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Internet

Recursive Function

A function that calls itself directly or indirectly in order to solve a problem.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Algorithms

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