IT Glossary - K - ITU Online

IT Glossary
Key Terms To Know In The IT Industry

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K-Anonymity

A property of anonymized data indicating that each record is indistinguishable from at least k-1 other records with respect to certain identifying attributes, used to protect privacy in data sets.

You will find this term commonly used in Data Privacy, Security

K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN)

A simple, versatile, and easy-to-implement supervised machine learning algorithm that can be used for classification and regression tasks, based on finding the most similar data points (neighbors) in the training data.

You will find this term commonly used in AI, Machine Learning

Kademlia

A distributed hash table for decentralized peer-to-peer computer networks, used in various decentralized services to improve scalability and fault tolerance.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Peer-to-Peer

Kafka (Apache Kafka)

A distributed streaming platform that lets you publish and subscribe to streams of records, store records in a fault-tolerant way, and process them as they occur.

You will find this term commonly used in Big Data, Messaging Systems

Kaspersky Anti-Virus

A proprietary antivirus program developed by Kaspersky Lab.

You will find this term commonly used in Cybersecurity

Kbps (Kilobits per second)

A unit of data transfer rate equal to 1,000 bits per second, used in telecommunications and computing to measure bandwidth.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Internet Technology

Keepalive

A message sent between two devices to check if the other is still available or to prevent a connection from timing out.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Internet Technology

Kerberos

A network authentication protocol designed to provide strong authentication for client/server applications by using secret-key cryptography.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Cybersecurity

Kerberos Authentication

A network authentication protocol that uses tickets to allow nodes communicating over a non-secure network to prove their identity to one another in a secure manner.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Network Authentication

Kerberos Authentication System

A secure method for authenticating a request for a service in a computer network. Kerberos uses secret-key cryptography and requires a trusted third party, and it is designed to authenticate users to network services securely.

You will find this term commonly used in Network Security, Authentication

Kerberos Protocol

A network authentication protocol designed to provide strong authentication for client/server applications using secret-key cryptography, even over non-secure network channels.

You will find this term commonly used in Network Security, Authentication

Kerberos Ticket

A ticket-granting ticket (TGT) used in the Kerberos protocol to authenticate a user to a network service, proving the user's identity without sending the password across the network.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Authentication

Kerberos Ticket Granting Ticket (TGT)

A ticket used in the Kerberos protocol to obtain other tickets for specific services within a network, part of the mechanism that allows for secure, passwordless authentication to multiple services.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Authentication

Kerckhoffs's Principle

A concept in cryptography stating that a cryptographic system should be secure even if everything about the system, except the key, is public knowledge.

You will find this term commonly used in Cryptography, Security

Kerfuffle

Informal term used to describe a commotion or fuss, especially one caused by conflicting views, often used in the context of debates on technology implementation or software updates.

You will find this term commonly used in Workplace Culture, Communication

Kernel

The core component of an operating system that manages system resources and the communication between hardware and software applications.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT, Operating Systems

Kernel Address Space

The range of memory addresses that the kernel of an operating system can use to run its code and manage the system, separate from the user space where application programs run.

You will find this term commonly used in Operating Systems, Memory Management

Kernel Compilation

The process of compiling the kernel source code into a binary format that the computer can execute, allowing for customization of the operating system.

You will find this term commonly used in Operating Systems, Development

Kernel Compilation Flags

Options and settings used during the compilation of the kernel to enable or disable features, optimize performance, or configure the kernel to better suit specific hardware or requirements.

You will find this term commonly used in Operating Systems, Development

Kernel Configuration

The process of setting up kernel parameters and compiling the kernel to suit a specific system's requirements, often for optimizing performance or enabling specific hardware support.

You will find this term commonly used in Operating Systems, Development

Kernel Configuration Tool

A utility that allows users to configure the options for the operating system kernel, enabling or disabling specific features based on the system's needs and the security requirements.

You will find this term commonly used in Operating Systems, System Administration

Kernel Debugging

The process of diagnosing and fixing issues within the operating system kernel, often requiring specialized tools and knowledge of low-level system operations.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Operating Systems

Kernel Hardening

The process of enhancing the security of the kernel by reducing its attack surface through various techniques such as removing unnecessary code, applying security patches, and configuring security settings.

You will find this term commonly used in Operating Systems, Cybersecurity

Kernel Mode

A mode of operation in an operating system that grants the software running in this mode full access to all hardware resources and system memory.

You will find this term commonly used in Operating Systems, Security

Kernel Mode Drivers

Drivers that run with high-level privileges in the operating system's kernel mode, allowing them to execute tasks with direct access to the hardware and system memory.

You will find this term commonly used in Operating Systems, Hardware

Kernel Mode Execution

A mode in which the system's kernel operates, having full access to all hardware and system resources, as opposed to user mode, where applications are restricted in their access to resources.

You will find this term commonly used in Operating Systems, Security

Kernel Module

A piece of code that can be loaded into the kernel of an operating system to extend its capabilities without needing to reboot the system.

You will find this term commonly used in Operating Systems, Security

Kernel Object

In operating systems, an object managed by the kernel that represents a resource or a service, such as a file, a process, or a thread, providing a way to manage access and permissions.

You will find this term commonly used in Operating Systems, Resource Management

Kernel Panic

A safety measure taken by an operating system's kernel when it detects an internal fatal error from which it cannot safely recover. The system halts, requiring a restart.

You will find this term commonly used in Operating Systems, Security

Kernel Patch

An update to the kernel of an operating system, often for security improvements, bug fixes, or performance enhancements.

You will find this term commonly used in Operating Systems, Security

Kernel Patching

The process of applying updates to the kernel of an operating system to fix vulnerabilities, improve performance, or add new features, requiring careful testing to ensure system stability.

You will find this term commonly used in Operating Systems, Security

Kernel Series

Versions or releases of the kernel of an operating system, each with specific features, improvements, and bug fixes.

You will find this term commonly used in Operating Systems, Development

Kernel Space

The memory space in which the kernel (the core of the operating system) operates and has full access to the hardware, distinct from user space, where application software runs.

You will find this term commonly used in Operating Systems, Security

Kernel Space Driver

A driver that operates in kernel space, having full access to the hardware and system resources of the computer, used for high-performance and critical device operations.

You will find this term commonly used in Operating Systems, Hardware

Kernel Synchronization

Techniques and mechanisms used to coordinate actions and access to resources in an operating system kernel, ensuring data consistency and preventing race conditions.

You will find this term commonly used in Operating Systems, Concurrency

Kernel Thread

A type of thread in operating systems that operates in kernel mode and has the ability to execute kernel code and access system memory directly, used for tasks that require performing low-level operations close to the hardware.

You will find this term commonly used in Operating Systems, Multitasking

Kernel Transaction Manager

A component of some operating systems that enables the creation, management, and coordination of transactions for kernel mode resources, facilitating the development of reliable and consistent system services.

You will find this term commonly used in Operating Systems, Data Management

Kernel Update

The process of upgrading the kernel in an operating system to a newer version, which can include security patches, bug fixes, and performance enhancements.

You will find this term commonly used in Operating Systems, Maintenance

Kernel Upgrade

The process of updating the kernel of an operating system to a newer version, which may include improvements in security, performance, and support for new hardware.

You will find this term commonly used in Operating Systems, Maintenance

Kernel-based Virtual Machine (KVM)

A virtualization module in the Linux kernel that allows the kernel to function as a hypervisor, enabling the running of multiple virtual machines (VMs) with unmodified Linux or Windows images.

You will find this term commonly used in Virtualization, Cloud Computing

Kernel-Level Thread

Threads that are managed directly by the operating system kernel, offering high performance and full system resource access but requiring careful management to avoid conflicts and ensure security.

You will find this term commonly used in Operating Systems, Multithreading

Key Agreement

A protocol or algorithm by which two or more parties establish a shared key over an insecure medium without transferring the key itself, used for securing communication.

You will find this term commonly used in Cryptography, Network Security

Key Agreement Protocol

A protocol used in cryptography for two or more parties to agree on a key in such a way that both influence the outcome, used to establish a shared secret over an insecure medium without the need to exchange the key itself.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Cryptography

Key Agreement Scheme

A cryptographic protocol that allows two or more parties to agree on a key in such a way that both influence the result, ensuring secure communication over an insecure channel.

You will find this term commonly used in Cryptography, Security

Key Dependency

In database management, a concept where the value of one attribute depends on the value of another key attribute, used in the normalization process.

You will find this term commonly used in Databases, Data Modeling

Key Derivation Functions (KDF)

Cryptographic functions that derive one or more secret keys from a secret value, such as a password or passphrase, using a hashing, encryption, or pseudorandom function process.

You will find this term commonly used in Cryptography, Security

Key Distribution Center (KDC)

A part of the Kerberos network authentication protocol responsible for issuing tickets for secure communication between clients and services within a network.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Network Authentication

Key Distribution Protocol

A protocol used to securely distribute cryptographic keys to parties who wish to communicate securely, ensuring that keys are exchanged in a manner that prevents interception or compromise.

You will find this term commonly used in Cryptography, Network Security

Key Escrow

A security arrangement in which cryptographic keys are held in escrow by a third party, so that under certain circumstances (such as a court order), encrypted data can be decrypted without the consent of the data owner.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Cryptography

Key Escrow Agreement

A legal agreement for placing a cryptographic key with a third party (escrow agent), so it can be released under agreed conditions, often used in law enforcement or corporate governance.

You will find this term commonly used in Cryptography, Legal

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