What Is Apache Hadoop? - ITU Online

What is Apache Hadoop?

Definition: Apache Hadoop

Apache Hadoop is an open-source framework designed for distributed storage and processing of large data sets across clusters of computers using simple programming models. It is part of the Apache Software Foundation and has become a cornerstone technology in the field of big data and data analytics.

Overview of Apache Hadoop

Apache Hadoop allows for the distributed processing of massive data sets across clusters of computers using a simple programming model. It is designed to scale up from a single server to thousands of machines, each offering local computation and storage. Rather than relying on hardware to deliver high-availability, the library itself is designed to detect and handle failures at the application layer, providing a highly available service on top of a cluster of computers, each of which may be prone to failures.

Key Components of Apache Hadoop

HDFS (Hadoop Distributed File System)

HDFS is the primary storage system used by Hadoop applications. It provides high-throughput access to application data and is designed to scale to petabytes of storage.

MapReduce

MapReduce is a programming model for processing and generating large data sets with a parallel, distributed algorithm on a cluster. It consists of a Map function that performs filtering and sorting and a Reduce function that performs a summary operation.

YARN (Yet Another Resource Negotiator)

YARN is the resource management layer of Hadoop. It is responsible for managing the computing resources in clusters and using them for scheduling users’ applications.

Hadoop Common

Hadoop Common contains libraries and utilities needed by other Hadoop modules. These libraries provide file system and OS level abstractions, as well as a set of shared services across other Hadoop modules.

Benefits of Apache Hadoop

Scalability

One of the primary benefits of Hadoop is its scalability. It can efficiently process large amounts of data from gigabytes to petabytes across many servers.

Cost-Effective

Hadoop runs on commodity hardware, making it a cost-effective solution for storing and processing large volumes of data.

Flexibility

Hadoop can store and process various types of data, whether structured, semi-structured, or unstructured. This flexibility allows businesses to derive value from data from multiple sources.

Fault Tolerance

Hadoop’s architecture is highly fault-tolerant. Data is automatically replicated across multiple nodes in the cluster, ensuring that even if some nodes fail, the data remains available.

High Throughput

Hadoop is designed to provide high throughput access to data. It uses large data blocks and parallel processing to speed up data retrieval and processing.

Uses of Apache Hadoop

Data Warehousing

Many businesses use Hadoop as a data warehouse to store and analyze large sets of data. Its ability to process vast amounts of data quickly makes it ideal for this purpose.

Machine Learning

Hadoop is often used in machine learning applications. It can handle the large datasets required for training machine learning models efficiently.

Log Processing

Companies can use Hadoop to process and analyze large volumes of log data. This can help in monitoring systems and improving performance.

Data Lake

Hadoop is commonly used to create data lakes, which are centralized repositories that allow you to store all your structured and unstructured data at any scale.

ETL (Extract, Transform, Load)

Hadoop is used for ETL processes where data is extracted from various sources, transformed into a usable format, and loaded into a data warehouse or another storage system.

Features of Apache Hadoop

Distributed Processing

Hadoop’s ability to process data across many nodes simultaneously leads to faster data processing and analysis.

Data Locality

Hadoop minimizes network congestion and enhances throughput by processing data on the same node where it is stored.

Reliability

Hadoop’s data replication feature ensures data reliability and availability even in the case of hardware failures.

Scalability

Hadoop’s design allows it to scale from a single node to thousands of nodes, making it suitable for any size of data processing needs.

Cost Efficiency

Hadoop’s use of commodity hardware reduces costs, making it an affordable option for big data storage and processing.

How to Implement Apache Hadoop

Step 1: Set Up Hadoop Cluster

To set up a Hadoop cluster, you need to install Hadoop on multiple nodes and configure them to communicate with each other. This involves setting up the master and slave nodes.

Step 2: Install Hadoop

Download the latest version of Hadoop from the Apache website and install it on all the nodes in your cluster.

Step 3: Configure Hadoop

Configure the core-site.xml, hdfs-site.xml, mapred-site.xml, and yarn-site.xml files to set up the Hadoop environment. This configuration will include setting the Namenode, Datanodes, ResourceManager, and NodeManagers.

Step 4: Start Hadoop Services

Start the Hadoop services, including the Namenode, Datanodes, ResourceManager, and NodeManagers. Verify that all services are running correctly.

Step 5: Run Hadoop Jobs

Submit Hadoop jobs using the MapReduce programming model. Monitor the progress of your jobs using the Hadoop web interface.

Frequently Asked Questions Related to Apache Hadoop

What is Apache Hadoop used for?

Apache Hadoop is used for distributed storage and processing of large data sets across clusters of computers. It is commonly employed in data warehousing, machine learning, log processing, creating data lakes, and ETL processes.

What are the main components of Apache Hadoop?

The main components of Apache Hadoop are HDFS (Hadoop Distributed File System), MapReduce, YARN (Yet Another Resource Negotiator), and Hadoop Common. These components work together to provide a robust framework for processing large data sets.

How does Hadoop ensure fault tolerance?

Hadoop ensures fault tolerance through data replication across multiple nodes in the cluster. If a node fails, the data is still accessible from other nodes, ensuring high availability and reliability.

What is the role of YARN in Hadoop?

YARN (Yet Another Resource Negotiator) is the resource management layer of Hadoop. It is responsible for managing computing resources in clusters and scheduling users’ applications, thus optimizing the use of available resources.

Can Hadoop handle different types of data?

Yes, Hadoop can handle various types of data, including structured, semi-structured, and unstructured data. This flexibility allows businesses to store and process data from multiple sources efficiently.

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