IT Glossary - X - ITU Online

IT Glossary
Key Terms To Know In The IT Industry

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X Window Manager

An X Window Manager is a software component that controls the placement and appearance of windows in the X Window System. It provides window decorations, desktop management, and user interaction features to enhance the usability of graphical desktop environments.

You will find this term commonly used in Operating Systems, Graphical User Interfaces

X Window System

The X Window System is a graphical windowing system that provides the foundation for graphical user interfaces (GUIs) in Unix-like operating systems. It allows multiple applications to run concurrently and display their output in separate windows on a computer screen.

You will find this term commonly used in Operating Systems, Graphical User Interfaces

X.21

X.21 is a standard interface for connecting data terminal equipment (DTE) and data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE) in digital communication networks. It defines the physical and electrical characteristics of the interface, including connector pinouts and signaling protocols.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Data Communication

X.25

X.25 is a standard protocol suite for packet-switched networking that was widely used in the early days of computer networking. It provides connections between devices over public or private networks using virtual circuits.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Data Communication

X.400

X.400 is a standard protocol suite for email messaging and directory services in computer networks. It defines the format and procedures for exchanging messages between different email systems and managing directories of users and resources.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Email Systems

X.400 Address

An X.400 address is a unique identifier used to route email messages in X.400-based messaging systems. It consists of a series of components that specify the recipient's mailbox, organization, and country within the X.400 directory hierarchy.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Email Systems

X.509

X.509 is a standard format for public key certificates used in public key infrastructure (PKI) systems. It defines the structure and contents of digital certificates, including information about the certificate holder and the certificate authority that issued it.

You will find this term commonly used in Cybersecurity, Security, Networking

X.509 Certificate

An X.509 certificate is a digital document that verifies the identity of an entity, such as a website, server, or individual user, in a cryptographic manner. It contains information about the certificate holder, issuer, and public key, signed by a trusted certificate authority.

You will find this term commonly used in Cybersecurity, Security, Networking

XaaS (Anything as a Service)

XaaS refers to the delivery of various services over the internet, where the provider hosts and manages the infrastructure, software, and platform, allowing users to access them on-demand. Examples include SaaS (Software as a Service), PaaS (Platform as a Service), and IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service).

You will find this term commonly used in Cloud Computing, General IT

XaaS (Everything as a Service)

An emerging paradigm that extends the concept of providing various services over the internet beyond the traditional models.

You will find this term commonly used in Cloud Computing, Service Models

XACML (eXtensible Access Control Markup Language)

XACML is an XML-based language for defining and enforcing access control policies in distributed systems. It provides a standardized framework for specifying who can access what resources under which conditions.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Access Control

XAMPP

A free and open-source cross-platform web server solution stack package developed by Apache Friends, consisting mainly of the Apache HTTP Server, MariaDB database, and interpreters for scripts written in the PHP and Perl programming languages.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT

Xapian

An open-source search engine library, providing algorithms and data structures for indexing and searching text.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Information Retrieval

XCAP (XML Configuration Access Protocol)

XCAP is a protocol for managing configuration data stored in XML format on a server. It provides mechanisms for accessing, modifying, and sharing configuration settings across different applications and devices in a networked environment.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Configuration Management

XDMCP (X Display Manager Control Protocol)

A communication protocol that allows remote access to an X Window System desktop.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Remote Desktop Services

XDR (eXternal Data Representation)

XDR is a standard for serializing and deserializing data structures in a platform-independent manner. It defines a format for encoding data types and values for transmission between different computer systems.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Data Transmission

Xen Hypervisor

An open-source hypervisor that provides virtualization services for x86-compatible computers.

You will find this term commonly used in Virtualization

Xen Virtualization

Xen is an open-source hypervisor that enables multiple operating systems to run concurrently on a single physical machine. It provides a virtualization platform for server consolidation, resource optimization, and improved scalability.

You will find this term commonly used in Virtualization, Cloud Computing

XENIX

Xenix is a discontinued version of the Unix operating system developed by Microsoft in the 1980s. It was designed for compatibility with the Unix System V release 2.0, providing a multi-user, multitasking environment for business and enterprise computing.

You will find this term commonly used in Operating Systems, Legacy Systems

Xenix OS

A version of the UNIX operating system, licensed by Microsoft and targeted at the business and educational markets.

You will find this term commonly used in Operating Systems, Legacy Systems

XER (eXternal Entity Resolution)

XER is a method for resolving external references in XML documents by associating them with specific resources or locations. It enables XML processors to retrieve and incorporate external entities into a document during parsing or validation.

You will find this term commonly used in Web Development, Data Integration

XForms

An XML format for the specification of a data processing model for web forms and their submission, aiming to improve web forms with rich functionality.

You will find this term commonly used in Web Development, Data Management

XFP (10 Gigabit Small Form Factor Pluggable)

XFP is a standard for high-speed optical transceivers used in 10 Gigabit Ethernet and other fiber-optic communication systems. It defines the physical and electrical characteristics of small form factor pluggable modules for transmitting and receiving data over optical fibers.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Data Transmission

XFS (eXtended File System)

XFS is a high-performance file system designed for use in Unix-like operating systems. It supports large file sizes, metadata journaling, and advanced features such as snapshots and online resizing, making it suitable for handling large-scale storage requirements.

You will find this term commonly used in Operating Systems, File Systems

Xgrid

A technology developed by Apple Inc. for distributed computing, allowing computers to work together on complex tasks.

You will find this term commonly used in Distributed Computing, High-Performance Computing

XHR (Cross-Origin Resource Sharing)

CORS is a security feature implemented in web browsers to prevent cross-origin HTTP requests from accessing resources on a different domain. It allows web servers to specify which origins are permitted to access their resources, reducing the risk of unauthorized access and data leakage.

You will find this term commonly used in Web Development, Security

XHR (XMLHttpRequest)

XHR is an API in web development that allows client-side scripts to communicate with web servers asynchronously. It enables the exchange of data between the web browser and server without refreshing the entire page, facilitating dynamic and interactive web applications.

You will find this term commonly used in Web Development, Client-Server Communication

XHTML (eXtensible Hypertext Markup Language)

XHTML is a reformulation of HTML as an XML application, combining the syntax and semantics of HTML with the rigorousness of XML. It adheres to XML rules, making it easier to create well-formed and structured web documents that can be processed by XML tools.

You will find this term commonly used in Web Development, Markup Language

Xilinx FPGA

Field-Programmable Gate Arrays from Xilinx, Inc., which are integrated circuits that can be programmed by customers after manufacturing.

You will find this term commonly used in Hardware Development, Digital Design

Xilinx ISE (Integrated Software Environment)

A software tool produced by Xilinx for synthesis and analysis of HDL designs, enabling the developer to synthesize ("compile") their designs, perform timing analysis, examine RTL diagrams, simulate a design's reaction to different stimuli, and configure the target device with the programmer.

You will find this term commonly used in Hardware Development, FPGA Programming

Xinerama

A technology that allows for multi-head display with the X Window System, enabling the use of multiple monitors as a single, large display.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT, Hardware Integration

XInput

An API for input devices in the X Window System, allowing the application to recognize input from keyboards, mice, and other input devices.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Hardware Interaction

Xively

A platform for integrating, managing, and deriving business value from IoT (Internet of Things) devices.

You will find this term commonly used in IoT, Cloud Computing

Xlib

A library that provides a low-level API for interfacing with the X Window System, allowing for the creation of GUI applications.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT, Software Development

XLink (XML Linking Language)

A language used in XML documents to create hyperlinks between parts of the document or between different documents.

You will find this term commonly used in Web Development, XML Technologies

XML (eXtensible Markup Language)

XML is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable, commonly used for data interchange between systems or platforms, as well as configuration files.

You will find this term commonly used in Data Interchange, Markup Language, Data Representation

XML Document

A structured text file that conforms to the rules of the XML markup language.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT

XML Encryption

XML Encryption is a standard for encrypting and decrypting XML documents to ensure confidentiality and integrity during transmission and storage. It allows sensitive data within XML documents to be securely protected using cryptographic algorithms and key management techniques.

You will find this term commonly used in Cybersecurity, Data Encryption

XML Namespace

An XML Namespace is a mechanism for uniquely identifying elements and attributes within an XML document to avoid naming conflicts. It allows elements and attributes with the same name to be distinguished based on their namespace URI, providing a means of organizing and categorizing XML content.

You will find this term commonly used in Web Development, Markup Language

XML Parsing

The process of analyzing an XML document to extract relevant information according to the document's structure and syntax rules.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT

XML Schema

XML Schema is a language for defining the structure, content, and data types of XML documents using a schema-based approach. It allows developers to specify constraints and validation rules for ensuring the integrity and consistency of XML data across different systems and applications.

You will find this term commonly used in Web Development, Data Validation

XML Schema Definition (XSD)

A specific way to define the structure, content, and semantics of XML documents.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT

XML Signature

XML Signature is a standard for digitally signing XML documents to verify their authenticity and integrity. It allows senders to attach cryptographic signatures to XML content, providing assurance that the data has not been tampered with or altered during transmission.

You will find this term commonly used in Cybersecurity, Digital Signatures

XML-RPC

A remote procedure call protocol that uses XML to encode its calls and HTTP as a transport mechanism.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

XML-RPC (Remote Procedure Call)

XML-RPC is a protocol that defines a set of rules for making remote procedure calls between software applications over the internet using XML messages. It allows clients to invoke methods on servers and receive responses in a platform-independent manner.

You will find this term commonly used in Web Development, API Integration

XML-RPC (XML Remote Procedure Call)

A remote procedure call protocol that uses XML to encode its calls and HTTP as a transport mechanism.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT, Networking

XMODEM

XMODEM is a simple file transfer protocol used to transmit data between computers over a serial connection. It provides basic error detection and correction capabilities, making it suitable for transferring files reliably over unreliable communication channels.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Data Transmission

XMODEM Protocol

The XMODEM protocol is a simple file transfer protocol used to transmit binary files between computers over a serial connection. It operates in full-duplex mode, sending data packets sequentially and verifying their integrity using checksums or CRCs.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Data Transmission

XMPP (eXtensible Messaging and Presence Protocol)

A communication protocol for message-oriented middleware based on XML (Extensible Markup Language).

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Instant Messaging

XMS (Expanded Memory Specification)

XMS is a standard for accessing extended memory beyond the 640 KB limit imposed by the original IBM PC architecture. It allows DOS-based applications to utilize additional memory provided by expansion cards or memory managers.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT, Legacy Systems

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