IT Glossary - N - ITU Online

IT Glossary
Key Terms To Know In The IT Industry

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N-tier Architecture

A multi-tier architecture that separates the presentation, application, and data management functions for better scalability and management.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development, Architecture

Nagios

A powerful monitoring system that enables organizations to identify and resolve IT infrastructure problems before they affect critical business processes.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Monitoring

Nagle's Algorithm

A means to improve the efficiency of TCP/IP networks by reducing the number of packets that need to be sent over the network.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Algorithms

Namespace

A container that holds a set of identifiers, symbols, or names, allowing for the organization and control of these elements within various parts of a program or system.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT, Programming

Namespace Isolation

A technology used in virtualization and containerization to isolate system resources between different processes or containers.

You will find this term commonly used in Virtualization, Security

NaN (Not a Number)

A value or symbol that represents an undefined or unrepresentable value, especially in floating-point calculations.

You will find this term commonly used in Programming, Data Science

NAND Flash Memory

Non-volatile storage technology used in solid-state drives (SSDs) and USB flash drives.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT, Storage

NAND Gate

A basic logic gate in digital electronics that produces an output only when all its inputs are off. It is the combination of a NOT gate followed by an AND gate.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT

Nanotechnology

The manipulation of matter on an atomic or molecular scale, often used in IT for developing smaller and more powerful electronic components.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT

NAP (Network Access Protection)

A Microsoft technology for controlling network access of a computer, based on its health compliance with the defined policy.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Security

Narrowband

A type of data transmission over a network where the bandwidth range is narrow. Often used in telecommunications to refer to channels that are narrower than a voice channel.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Telecommunications

NAS (Network-Attached Storage)

A file-level storage architecture that makes stored data more accessible to networked devices.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Data Storage

NAT (Network Address Translation)

A technique used to modify network address information in packet headers while in transit, often used to conserve IP addresses or enhance security.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Security

NAT (Network Address Translation) Traversal

Techniques that establish and maintain Internet protocol connections traversing NAT gateways, used in applications like VoIP.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Cybersecurity

NAT64

A mechanism for translating IPv6 addresses to IPv4 addresses and vice versa, facilitating communication between IPv4 and IPv6 networks.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, IPv6/IPv4 Integration

Natural Language Generation

Natural language generation (NLG) is a branch of artificial intelligence that generates human-like text or speech based on structured data or predefined rules, enabling automated content creation, summarization, or report generation.

You will find this term commonly used in AI, Natural Language Processing, Content Generation

Natural Language Processing

Natural language processing (NLP) is a branch of artificial intelligence that focuses on the interaction between computers and humans through natural language, enabling computers to understand, interpret, and generate human language.

You will find this term commonly used in AI, Data Processing, Linguistics

Natural Language Processing (NLP)

A branch of artificial intelligence that enables computers to understand, interpret, and generate human language.

You will find this term commonly used in AI

Near Field Communication (NFC)

NFC is a set of communication protocols that enable two electronic devices, one of which is usually a portable device such as a smartphone, to establish communication by bringing them within 4 cm of each other.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT

Negative Acknowledgment (NAK)

A signal used in communications to indicate that data has been received incorrectly or that an error has occurred during transmission.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Data Communication

Net Neutrality

The principle that all Internet traffic should be treated equally by Internet Service Providers, without discrimination.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Policy

NetBIOS (Network Basic Input/Output System)

An API that allows applications on different computers to communicate within a local area network (LAN).

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, General IT

Netmask

A bitmask used to determine what subnet an IP address belongs to.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Cybersecurity

NetOps (Network Operations)

The practice of implementing network changes that can improve the agility and security of the network infrastructure.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, IT Management

Network

A collection of interconnected computers and devices that can communicate and share resources with each other.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Network Access Control

A security approach that regulates access to a network based on the user's identity, device type, and security posture.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Cybersecurity

Network Access Control (NAC)

Network access control (NAC) is a security technology that enforces policies to control access to network resources based on the identity and compliance status of the devices seeking access. It helps prevent unauthorized access and mitigate security threats.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Cybersecurity

Network Access Control List (ACL)

A network access control list (ACL) is a set of rules or configurations applied to a network device, such as a router or firewall, to control the flow of traffic based on criteria such as IP addresses, ports, and protocols. It helps enforce security policies and restrict unauthorized access.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Security

Network Access Point (NAP)

A network access point (NAP) is a physical or virtual location where multiple network connections converge to exchange data traffic between different networks or network segments. It serves as a gateway or interconnection point for network traffic.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Network Access Server (NAS)

A server that provides access services to the users over a network, including access to the internet, remote dial-up, VPN services, etc.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Security

Network Activation

The process of enabling network service for a device or service, often involving configuration and provisioning.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, IT Management

Network Adapter

A hardware device that connects a computer to a network.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Hardware

Network Address

A unique identifier assigned to a device on a computer network, typically in the form of an IP address or MAC address.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Network Address Translation (NAT)

A method of remapping one IP address space into another by modifying network address information in packet headers.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Security

Network Administrator

A professional responsible for managing and maintaining an organization's computer networks and systems.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Security

Network Analytics

The process of capturing, aggregating, and analyzing data from the network to understand traffic patterns, performance issues, and security threats.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Analytics

Network Analyzer

A network analyzer is a hardware or software tool used to capture, analyze, and interpret network traffic and performance data. It helps diagnose network problems, optimize performance, and troubleshoot security issues by inspecting packet headers and payloads.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Security

Network and Security Virtualization

The process of abstracting network and security resources from hardware to software to improve scalability, management, and security.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Security, Virtualization

Network Appliance

A network appliance is a specialized hardware device or software application designed to perform specific network-related functions, such as routing, switching, firewalling, or network monitoring, without the need for extensive configuration or management.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Network Architect

Designs and reviews network requirements and capabilities for an organization, planning the network structure and technology implementations.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Infrastructure Design

Network Architecture

The design and organization of a computer network, including its components, protocols, and communication pathways.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Network Attached Storage

Network-attached storage (NAS) is a file-level storage device that provides data storage and access to multiple clients over a computer network, typically using protocols such as NFS or SMB.

You will find this term commonly used in Data Storage, Networking

Network Attached Storage (NAS)

A storage device that provides centralized data storage and access to multiple clients over a network.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Network Bandwidth

The maximum data transfer rate of a network or internet connection, typically measured in bits per second (bps).

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Network Behavior Analysis (NBA)

The use of networking technologies and analytical techniques to detect anomalies in the network behavior that may indicate a security threat.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Security

Network Bridge

A device that connects multiple network segments at the data link layer (Layer 2) of the OSI model.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Hardware

Network Capacity

The total volume of information that a network can handle at any given time, often measured in bandwidth (bits per second).

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, IT Management

Network Choke Point

A point in the network where the traffic is restricted or slowed down, which can be a potential security risk or bottleneck.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Security

Network Coding

A method in network information theory that allows for more efficient data transmission by combining multiple data streams into a single one.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Data Communication

Network Compiler

Software or a tool that translates network configuration or policy from a high-level language into device-specific commands.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Software Development

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