IT Glossary - L - ITU Online

IT Glossary
Key Terms To Know In The IT Industry

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L-value and R-value

In programming languages, l-value refers to memory location which identifies an object that persists beyond a single expression. R-value refers to data value that is stored at some address in memory. These concepts are crucial in understanding expressions and assignments.

You will find this term commonly used in Programming

L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol)

L2TP is a tunneling protocol used to support virtual private networks (VPNs) or as part of the delivery of services by ISPs.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking/Security

Lambda Architecture

A data-processing architecture designed to handle massive quantities of data by taking advantage of both batch- and stream-processing methods. It's structured to balance latency, throughput, and fault-tolerance.

You will find this term commonly used in Big Data, Data Processing

Lambda Calculus

A formal system in mathematical logic and computer science for expressing computation based on function abstraction and application using variable binding and substitution. It's foundational in the study of functional programming languages.

You will find this term commonly used in Theoretical Computer Science

Lambda Expressions

Anonymous functions defined in many programming languages that allow for the creation of inline functions with a short syntax. They are particularly useful in functional programming and for operations that require simple functions as parameters, like map and filter.

You will find this term commonly used in Programming

Lambda Function

An anonymous function used for creating small, one-off functions in programming languages like Python.

You will find this term commonly used in Programming

LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP/Perl/Python)

A model of web service stacks, named as an acronym of the names of its original four open-source components. The LAMP components are largely interchangeable and not limited to the original selection.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT, Web Development

LAMP Stack

LAMP stack is a popular open-source web development platform that uses Linux as the operating system, Apache as the web server, MySQL as the database management system, and PHP as the scripting language.

You will find this term commonly used in Web Development

LAN (Local Area Network)

A network that connects computers and devices in a limited geographical area such as a home, school, or office building, using network media.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

LAN Emulation

LAN emulation (LANE) is a technique used in ATM networks to emulate the behavior of a traditional LAN over an ATM infrastructure.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

LAN Management

LAN management involves the administration, monitoring, and maintenance of a local area network (LAN) to ensure its optimal performance and security.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

LAN Party

A LAN party is a gathering of people with computers or compatible game consoles, where a local area network (LAN) connection is established between the devices.

You will find this term commonly used in Gaming/Networking

LAN Segmentation

LAN segmentation involves dividing a local area network (LAN) into multiple smaller segments to improve performance or security.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

LAN Switching

The process of forwarding packets between devices on the same local area network (LAN) based on MAC addresses. This technology allows for the segmentation of networks into smaller, more efficient components, improving overall network performance and security.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Landing Page

A web page that serves as the entry point for a website or a particular section of a website, often used in marketing to capture leads.

You will find this term commonly used in Web Development

Landmark Detection

A technology in computer vision and image processing that identifies and locates key points on objects or faces within an image. This technique is widely used in applications like facial recognition, augmented reality, and robotics for navigation and interaction.

You will find this term commonly used in Computer Vision, Artificial Intelligence

Language Integrated Query (LINQ)

A Microsoft .NET Framework component that adds native data querying capabilities to .NET languages using a syntax reminiscent of SQL but integrated into the programming languages.

You will find this term commonly used in Programming, Database

Language Model

In natural language processing, a statistical model that predicts the likelihood of a sequence of words. These models are foundational for tasks such as speech recognition, text generation, and machine translation.

You will find this term commonly used in Natural Language Processing

Language Processing

The ability of a computer to understand, interpret, and generate human language, including tasks such as speech recognition, natural language understanding, and text generation. It's a key area of artificial intelligence research.

You will find this term commonly used in Artificial Intelligence, NLP

Language Processor

Software that translates computer programs written in a high-level language into machine code.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development

Language Server Protocol (LSP)

A protocol used between an editor or IDE and a language server that provides programming language-specific features like autocomplete, go to definition, or hover tips without the editor needing to understand the nuances of the language.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development

Laser Printer

A printer that uses a laser beam to transfer text and images to paper. Known for high-quality prints and speed.

You will find this term commonly used in Hardware

Latch

A type of digital logic circuit used to store one bit of data, consisting of a basic form of memory. Latches are used in various types of electronic devices for controlling the flow of data.

You will find this term commonly used in Hardware, Electronics

Latch-Up

A type of short circuit which can occur in an integrated circuit (IC), leading to the failure of the device. It is typically caused by the triggering of a parasitic structure within the IC by a high current.

You will find this term commonly used in Hardware, Electronics

Latency

The delay before a transfer of data begins following an instruction for its transfer. In networking, it's the time taken for a packet to be transferred across a network.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, General IT

Latency Compensation

Techniques used in online gaming and real-time applications to minimize the effects of latency, ensuring a more responsive experience for users. This includes predicting user actions or adjusting the state of the game or application based on network delays.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Application Development

Latency Optimization

Latency optimization is the process of reducing delays in data transmission to improve network performance.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA)

A generative statistical model that allows sets of observations to be explained by unobserved groups, helping to understand why parts of the data are similar. It is particularly used in natural language processing for document classification and topic modeling.

You will find this term commonly used in Machine Learning, Data Analysis

Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA)

A technique in natural language processing of analyzing relationships between a set of documents and the terms they contain.

You will find this term commonly used in AI/Natural Language Processing

Lateral Movement

A technique used in cybersecurity breaches where attackers move through a network searching for key data and assets after gaining initial access. It's a critical stage in cyber attacks aiming to find and exfiltrate sensitive information.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Cybersecurity

Law of Demeter

A software design guideline for developing software, particularly object-oriented programs, to promote loose coupling.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Engineering

Layer

A layer refers to a level within a network protocol stack where certain functionality is implemented.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Layer 1

Layer 1, the physical layer of the OSI model, deals with the transmission of raw data bits over a physical medium and includes specifications for cables, connectors, and signaling.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Layer 2

The Data Link layer in the OSI model, responsible for node-to-node data transfer on the same network.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Layer 2 Forwarding (L2F)

A tunneling protocol developed by Cisco Systems to establish Virtual Private Network (VPN) connections over the internet. L2F allows the encapsulation of data frames to be transmitted over a network.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Security

Layer 2 Switching

Layer 2 switching is the process of using MAC addresses to forward data at the data link layer (Layer 2) of the OSI model.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP)

L2TP is a tunneling protocol used to support virtual private networks (VPNs) or as part of the delivery of services by ISPs.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking/Security

Layer 3

The Network layer in the OSI model, responsible for packet forwarding including routing through intermediate routers.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Layer 3 Protocol

Network protocols operating at the Layer 3 (Network layer) of the OSI model, responsible for packet forwarding including routing through intermediate routers. Examples include IPv4 and IPv6.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Layer 3 Switching

Layer 3 switching is the process of forwarding data based on layer 3 (network layer) information, such as IP addresses.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Layer 4

Layer 4, the transport layer of the OSI model, ensures the reliable delivery of data between devices and provides mechanisms for error recovery and flow control.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Layer 4 Switching

Layer 4 switching is the process of forwarding data based on layer 4 (transport layer) information, such as port numbers.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Layer 5

Layer 5, the session layer of the OSI model, manages communication sessions between devices, including establishment, maintenance, and termination.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Layer 6

Layer 6, the presentation layer of the OSI model, is responsible for data translation, encryption, and decryption for the application layer.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Layer 7 Firewall

Layer 7 firewall, also known as an application firewall, operates at the application layer of the OSI model to filter network traffic based on specific application data.

You will find this term commonly used in Security

Layer 7 Load Balancing

Refers to the load balancing of traffic based on data found in the application layer of the OSI model, such as HTTP headers, cookies, or application messages. This enables more granular traffic management decisions based on the content of messages.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking, Web Services

Layer 8

Layer 8, often humorously referred to as the "political layer," represents the human factors and politics that influence technology decisions and implementations.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT

Layer Encryption

A method of applying encryption within various layers of network protocols to secure data in transit. This approach ensures that data remains protected at different stages of communication, enhancing overall security.

You will find this term commonly used in Security, Cryptography

Layered Architecture

Layered architecture is a design principle that separates software components into distinct layers, each responsible for specific tasks.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Design

Layered Networking Model

A conceptual framework that divides the tasks involved in communicating over a network into a series of layers, each building upon the last. The most famous example is the OSI model, which includes layers like the application layer, transport layer, and physical layer.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

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