IT Glossary - Q - ITU Online

IT Glossary
Key Terms To Know In The IT Industry

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Q-learning

A form of model-free reinforcement learning algorithm that seeks to find the best action to take given the current state. It's used in various AI applications to maximize the expected reward of an action taken in a given state.

You will find this term commonly used in AI/ Machine Learning

QA Tester

Tests software for bugs, errors, defects, or usability issues before it is released to the public.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Testing, Quality Assurance

QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) Demodulation

The process of decoding data transmitted via QAM modulation, commonly used in digital telecommunication systems to convey data by changing the amplitude of two carrier waves.

You will find this term commonly used in Telecommunications

QBE (Query By Example)

A feature of certain databases and search engines that allows the user to construct a query by providing examples of the results they want, without needing to know the syntax of a query language.

You will find this term commonly used in Databases

QEMU

An open-source machine emulator and virtualizer. By using dynamic translation, it achieves good performance by emulating a physical computer so that a different operating system can run on it.

You will find this term commonly used in Virtualization

QFD (Quality Function Deployment)

A method used to transform user demands into design quality, to deploy the functions forming the product quality, and to deploy methods for achieving the design quality into subsystems and component parts, and ultimately to specific elements of the manufacturing process.

You will find this term commonly used in Project Management

QoS (Quality of Service)

A set of technologies and practices that work to ensure the efficient operation of a network by prioritizing certain types of traffic, which is crucial for ensuring that time-sensitive data (like video and voice) is delivered promptly.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

QoS Mapping

The process of associating different types of traffic with specific Quality of Service (QoS) levels. It's used in networks to prioritize traffic to ensure that critical services have the necessary bandwidth and latency.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

QoS Policy

A set of rules that define the overall Quality of Service (QoS) priorities by specifying priority levels for different types of traffic or data flows on a network.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

QR Code (Quick Response Code)

A type of two-dimensional barcode that is used to provide easy access to information through a smartphone camera. QR codes are used in a wide range of applications, including marketing, payments, and inventory management.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT

QSIG

A signaling protocol used in enterprise voice networks for signaling between private branch exchanges (PBXs) on a Q.931 backbone. It provides advanced calling features in corporate telephony networks.

You will find this term commonly used in Telecommunications

Quad Band

Refers to a mobile device's ability to support four different frequency bands used for cellular service, allowing it to be used in various parts of the world.

You will find this term commonly used in Mobile Computing

Quad-Buffering

A technique used in 3D graphics to support stereoscopic display (3D glasses). It involves using four memory buffers to reduce flickering and improve the 3D experience by separately rendering images for the left and right eyes.

You will find this term commonly used in Computer Graphics

Quad-Core Processor

A type of CPU that contains four independent cores that read and execute central processing unit (CPU) instructions such as add, move data, and branch.

You will find this term commonly used in Hardware

Quad-Level Cell (QLC) NAND

A type of NAND flash memory that stores four bits of data per cell, offering higher density storage compared to previous generations (SLC, MLC, TLC) but at the cost of slower write speeds and lower endurance.

You will find this term commonly used in Data Storage

Quadratic Hashing

A collision resolution method in hashing that uses a quadratic polynomial to calculate the index for storing a key. It's designed to reduce clustering in hash tables.

You will find this term commonly used in Data Structures

Quadratic Probing

A collision resolution method in open addressing hash table algorithms where the interval between probes is increased by a quadratic function of the number of probes. This helps in evenly distributing entries that hash to the same index.

You will find this term commonly used in Algorithms/Data Structures

Quadratic Sieve

An algorithm used in number theory for integer factorization, which is fundamental in the field of cryptography, especially for the factorization of large numbers used in RSA encryption. It is one of the fastest factorization methods for numbers with fewer than 100 digits.

You will find this term commonly used in Cryptography/Mathematics

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)

A modulation technique used in digital telecommunication to convey data by changing the amplitude of two carrier waves. It's widely used in broadband data communication over cable TV networks and in WiFi and cellular data transmission.

You will find this term commonly used in Telecommunications

Quadrature Signal

A signal that is phase-shifted by 90 degrees relative to another, used in various modulation schemes in telecommunications to transmit data more efficiently by utilizing both sine and cosine components of a carrier frequency.

You will find this term commonly used in Telecommunications

Quadtree

A tree data structure in which each internal node has exactly four children. Quadtrees are most often used to partition a two-dimensional space by recursively subdividing it into four quadrants or regions.

You will find this term commonly used in Data Structures

Qualitative Data

Data that approximates or characterizes but does not measure the attributes, characteristics, properties, etc., of a thing or phenomenon. Qualitative data describes qualities or characteristics.

You will find this term commonly used in Data Analysis/Research

Quality Assurance

Quality assurance (QA) is a systematic process of ensuring that products, services, or processes meet specified requirements and standards, often involving testing, inspection, and continuous improvement methodologies.

You will find this term commonly used in General IT, Testing, Quality Management

Quality Assurance (QA)

A way of preventing mistakes and defects in manufactured products and avoiding problems when delivering solutions or services to customers. In IT, QA refers to the process of verifying whether a product or service meets specified requirements.

You will find this term commonly used in Quality Assurance

Quality Assurance Automation

The use of software tools to automate the testing of software applications to identify bugs or performance issues without human intervention. This helps in speeding up the testing process and ensuring a higher level of accuracy in identifying defects.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development

Quality Assurance Framework

A structured set of guidelines and practices designed to ensure that a product or service meets and maintains the desired level of quality, including testing, documentation, and review processes.

You will find this term commonly used in Quality Assurance

Quality Assurance Metrics

Quantitative measures used to gauge the quality of software development processes and outcomes. These metrics can include test coverage, defect density, code review efficiency, and user satisfaction scores, among others, to ensure the delivery of high-quality software products.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development

Quality Assurance Testing

The process of systematically monitoring and evaluating various aspects of a project, service, or facility to ensure that standards of quality are being met. It involves the execution of a system or application to identify bugs or performance issues.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development

Quality Control (QC)

The part of quality management focused on fulfilling quality requirements. While QA relates to how a process is performed or how a product is made, QC is more the inspection aspect of quality management.

You will find this term commonly used in Quality Assurance

Quality Function Deployment (QFD)

A structured approach to defining customer needs or requirements and translating them into specific plans to produce products to meet those needs. The "house of quality," a part of QFD, is a matrix comparing customer desires to the company's capabilities.

You will find this term commonly used in Project Management

Quality Functionality Deployment

A user-driven strategy for product development that uses systematic methods to translate user requirements into design specifications. It involves cross-functional teams and aims to design a product that meets or exceeds customer expectations.

You will find this term commonly used in Product Development

Quality Gates

Criteria or checkpoints used in software development and IT project management to ensure quality standards are met before a product progresses to the next phase of development or release.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development/Project Management

Quality Level Agreement (QLA)

Similar to a Service Level Agreement (SLA), a QLA is a contract between a service provider and a client that specifies the quality standards to be maintained in the delivery of a service or product, outlining the metrics by which quality will be measured and the remedies for non-compliance.

You will find this term commonly used in IT Services/Management

Quality Management System (QMS)

A formalized system that documents processes, procedures, and responsibilities for achieving quality policies and objectives. A QMS helps coordinate and direct an organization’s activities to meet customer and regulatory requirements and improve its effectiveness.

You will find this term commonly used in Project Management

Quality Metrics

Standardized measurements related to the efficiency, reliability, and effectiveness of IT services or products. They help in assessing the quality of processes, products, and projects in the IT domain.

You will find this term commonly used in Quality Assurance

Quality Metrics Analysis

The process of evaluating and analyzing the performance of IT services, products, or processes based on predefined quality metrics. This analysis helps in identifying areas for improvement and ensuring that quality objectives are met.

You will find this term commonly used in Quality Assurance

Quality Metrics for Software Development

Specific measures used to assess the quality of software development processes and products, including code quality, defect rates, adherence to design principles, and user satisfaction, aiming to ensure high-quality software delivery.

You will find this term commonly used in Software Development

Quality Metrics in IT Projects

Specific measures used to assess the quality of IT projects, including software quality, project management effectiveness, and adherence to timelines and budgets, aiming to ensure successful project outcomes.

You will find this term commonly used in Project Management

Quality of Experience (QoE)

A measure of customer satisfaction with a service. In IT, it often refers to the perception of end-users regarding the quality of their network connection or interaction with software and services.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking/Service Management

Quality of Experience (QoE) Metrics

Metrics used to assess how users perceive the quality of a digital service or application, often considering factors such as speed, reliability, and usability. QoE is crucial for understanding and improving the user experience.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking/User Experience

Quality of Protection (QoP)

A measure of the security strength of cryptographic protections applied to a communication channel or data. It considers factors such as encryption algorithms, key lengths, and authentication mechanisms.

You will find this term commonly used in Cybersecurity

Quality of Protection (QoP) Standards

Standards that define the security level provided by cryptographic systems, including encryption strength, authentication methods, and protocol robustness, ensuring that data transmissions meet a minimum level of security.

You will find this term commonly used in Cybersecurity

Quality of Service (QoS) Configuration

The process of prioritizing network traffic and resources based on the type of data being transmitted. This is crucial in networks to ensure that critical applications, such as voice and video, receive the bandwidth they require to function effectively.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Quality of Service (QoS) in Cloud Computing

The set of techniques and policies applied in cloud computing environments to ensure that cloud services meet specified performance and reliability standards, often by prioritizing network traffic and resources.

You will find this term commonly used in Cloud Computing

Quality of Service (QoS) Routing

The selection of network paths based on the required quality of service parameters such as latency, jitter, and packet loss, to support applications with specific network performance requirements.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Quality of Service Management

The act of overseeing and controlling the quality of service parameters on a network, such as bandwidth, latency, jitter, and packet loss, to ensure network services meet predefined performance standards and user expectations.

You will find this term commonly used in Networking

Quantitative Data

Data that quantifies the problem or thing and typically can be measured and expressed in numbers. Quantitative data is used to formulate facts and uncover patterns in research.

You will find this term commonly used in Data Analysis/Research

Quantum Annealer

A type of quantum computer that uses quantum tunnelling and superposition to solve optimization problems, finding the minimum or maximum of a function over a given set of candidate solutions.

You will find this term commonly used in Quantum Computing

Quantum Annealing

A quantum computing method used to find the global minimum of a function over a given set of candidate solutions (candidate states), by exploiting quantum effects. It's particularly useful for solving optimization and scheduling problems.

You will find this term commonly used in Quantum Computing

Quantum Blockchain

An experimental form of blockchain technology that uses principles of quantum computing to enhance security or efficiency. Quantum blockchains are theorized to be resistant to the computational power of quantum computers, which could potentially break traditional cryptographic methods.

You will find this term commonly used in Blockchain/Quantum Computing

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